Magic Leap Patent | Depth Plane Selection For Multi-Depth Plane Display Systems By User Categorization

Patent: Depth Plane Selection For Multi-Depth Plane Display Systems By User Categorization

Publication Number: 20200043236

Publication Date: 20200206

Applicants: Magic Leap

Abstract

A display system includes a head-mounted display configured to project light, having different amounts of wavefront divergence, to an eye of a user to display virtual image content appearing to be disposed at different depth planes. The wavefront divergence may be changed in discrete steps, with the change in steps being triggered based upon whether the user is fixating on a particular depth plane. The display system may be calibrated for switching depth planes for a main user. Upon determining that a guest user is utilizing the system, rather than undergoing a full calibration, the display system may be configured to switch depth planes based on a rough determination of the virtual content that the user is looking at. The virtual content has an associated depth plane and the display system may be configured to switch to the depth plane of that virtual content.

PRIORITY CLAIM

[0001] This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. .sctn. 119(e) from U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/714,649, filed on Aug. 3, 2018, entitled “DEPTH PLANE SELECTION FOR MULTI-DEPTH PLANE DISPLAY SYSTEMS BY DETERMINATION OF INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE,” and from U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/875,474, filed on Jul. 17, 2019, entitled “DEPTH PLANE SELECTION FOR MULTI-DEPTH PLANE DISPLAY SYSTEMS BY USER CATEGORIZATION,” both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0002] This application incorporates by reference the entirety of each of the following patent applications and publications: U.S. application Ser. No. 14/555,585 filed on Nov. 27, 2014, published on Jul. 23, 2015 as U.S. Publication No. 2015/0205126; U.S. application Ser. No. 14/690,401 filed on Apr. 18, 2015, published on Oct. 22, 2015 as U.S. Publication No. 2015/0302652; U.S. application Ser. No. 14/212,961 filed on Mar. 14, 2014, now U.S. Pat. No. 9,417,452 issued on Aug. 16, 2016; U.S. application Ser. No. 14/331,218 filed on Jul. 14, 2014, published on Oct. 29, 2015 as U.S. Publication No. 2015/0309263; U.S. application Ser. No. 15/927,808 filed on Mar. 21, 2018; U.S. application Ser. No. 15/291,929 filed on Oct. 12, 2016, published on Apr. 20, 2017 as U.S. Publication No. 2017/0109580; U.S. application Ser. No. 15/408,197 filed on Jan. 17, 2017, published on Jul. 20, 2017 as U.S. Publication No. 2017/0206412; U.S. application Ser. No. 15/469369 filed on Mar. 24, 2017, published on Sep. 28, 2017 as U.S. Publication No. 2017/0276948; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/618,559 filed on Jan. 17, 2018; U.S. application Ser. No. 16/250,931 filed on Jan. 17, 2019; U.S. application Ser. No. 14/705,741 filed on May 6, 2015, published on Apr. 21, 2016 as U.S. Publication No. 2016/0110920; and US patent publication No. 2017/0293145, published Oct. 12, 2017.

FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure relates to display systems, virtual reality, and augmented reality imaging and visualization systems and, more particularly, to depth plane selection based in part on a user’s interpupillary distance.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Modern computing and display technologies have facilitated the development of systems for so called “virtual reality”, “augmented reality”, or “mixed reality” experiences, wherein digitally reproduced images or portions thereof are presented to a user in a manner wherein they seem to be, or may be perceived as, real. A virtual reality, or “VR”, scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information without transparency to other actual real-world visual input; an augmented reality, or “AR”, scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information as an augmentation to visualization of the actual world around the user; a mixed reality, or “MR”, related to merging real and virtual worlds to produce new environments where physical and virtual objects co-exist and interact in real time. As it turns out, the human visual perception system is very complex, and producing a VR, AR, or MR technology that facilitates a comfortable, natural-feeling, rich presentation of virtual image elements amongst other virtual or real-world imagery elements is challenging. Systems and methods disclosed herein address various challenges related to VR, AR and MR technology.

SUMMARY

[0005] Various examples of systems and methods for depth plane selection in display system such as augmented reality display systems, including mixed reality display systems, are disclosed.

[0006] In some embodiments, a display system can be configured to project light to an eye of a wearer to display virtual image content in a field of view of the wearer, who may also be referred as a user. The wearer’s eye may have a cornea, an iris, a pupil, a lens, a retina, and an optical axis extending through the lens, pupil, and cornea. The display system can include a frame configured to be supported on a head of the wearer; a head-mounted display disposed on the frame, the display configured to project light into the wearer’s eyes to display virtual image content to the wearer’s field of view at different amounts of at least one of wavefront divergence and thus the displayed virtual image content may appear to originate from different depths at different periods of time; one or more eye tracking cameras configured to image the wearer’s eyes; and processing electronics in communication with the display and the one or more eye tracking cameras. In some embodiments, the processing electronics may be configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user of the display system and, based on that categorization, select a scheme for switching the presentation of virtual content between two or more depth planes. For example, the processing electronics may be configured to obtain an estimate of a wearer’s interpupillary distance based on images of the eye obtained with the one or more eye tracking cameras, determine whether the wearer is a calibrated or guest user, and, for guest users, the display system may be configured to switch between two or more depth planes based in part of the wearer’s estimated interpupillary distance or based on depth plane information associated with particular virtual content.

[0007] In some embodiments, an augmented reality display system comprises a head-mounted display configured to present virtual content by outputting light to a wearer, where the head-mounted display is configured to output light to an eye of the wearer with different amounts of wavefront divergence corresponding to different perceived depths away from the wearer. The display system also comprises at least one processor communicatively coupled to the head-mounted display. The at least one processor is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated wearer or a guest user. When the wearer is determined to be a calibrated user the at least one processor is configured to load pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information. When the wearer is determined to be a guest user, the at least one processor is configured to identify a virtual object at which the guest user is most likely to be looking, which has an associated depth plane, and to set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the associated depth plane.

[0008] In some other embodiments, a method for determining parameters for depth plane switching in a display system is provided. The display system is configured to direct image light to eyes of a user to display virtual image content, and to present the virtual image content on a plurality of depth planes. Each depth plane is associated with image light having a different amount of wavefront divergence, and the display system is configured to switch the virtual image content between different depth planes by changing a wavefront divergence of the image light. The method comprises determining whether the user is a calibrated user or a guest user. When the user is determined to be a calibrated user, pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information is loaded depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display are set based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information. When the user is determined to be a guest user, the virtual object that the guest user is looking at is determined. The virtual object has an associated depth plane; and depth plane switching parameters are set for the head-mounted display based upon the associated depth plane.

[0009] In yet other embodiments, an augmented reality display system comprises a head-mounted display configured to present virtual content by outputting light to a wearer. The head-mounted display comprises a waveguide stack configured to pass light from the world into an eye of the wearer. The waveguide stack comprises a plurality of waveguides and one or more waveguides of the plurality of waveguides are configured to output light to the eye of the wearer with a different amount of wavefront divergence than one or more other waveguides of the plurality of waveguides. Different amounts of wavefront divergence are associated with different accommodation by the eye, and the outputted light with different amounts of wavefront divergence forms virtual objects at different perceived depths away from the wearer. The display system further comprises an imaging device configured to capture images of eyes of the wearer and at least one processor communicatively coupled to the head-mounted display and the imaging device. The at least one processor is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user based at least in part on images of the eyes of the wearer from the imaging device. When the wearer is determined to be a calibrated user, the at least one processor is configured to load pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information. When the wearer is determined to be a guest user, the at least one processor is configured to determine the interpupillary distance of the guest user; and set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the determined interpupillary distance.

[0010] In some other embodiments, a method is provided for determining parameters for depth plane switching in a display system configured to direct image light to eyes of a user to display virtual image content. The eyes are separated by an interpupillary distance and the display system configured to present the virtual image content on a plurality of depth planes. Each depth plane is associated with image light having a different amount of wavefront divergence, and the display system is configured to switch the virtual image content between different depth planes by changing a wavefront divergence of the image light. The method comprises determining whether the user is a calibrated user or a guest user. When the user is determined to be a calibrated user, pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information is loaded and depth plane switching parameters for the display system are set based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information. When the user is determined to be a guest user, the interpupillary distance of the guest user is determined and depth plane switching parameters for the display system are set based upon the determined interpupillary distance.

[0011] Additional examples of embodiments are enumerated below.

[0012] Example 1. An augmented reality display system comprising: [0013] a head-mounted display configured to present virtual content by outputting light to a wearer, wherein the head-mounted display is configured to output light to an eye of the wearer with different amounts of wavefront divergence corresponding to different perceived depths away from the wearer; and [0014] at least one processor communicatively coupled to the head-mounted display, the at least one processor configured to: [0015] determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user; [0016] when the wearer is determined to be a calibrated user: [0017] load pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0018] set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0019] when the wearer is determined to be a guest user: [0020] identify a virtual object at which the guest user is most likely to be looking, wherein the virtual object has an associated depth plane; and [0021] set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the associated depth plane.

[0022] Example 2. The augmented reality display system of Example 1, wherein the display system is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user by determining the wearer’s interpupillary distance.

[0023] Example 3. The augmented reality display system of Example 1, wherein the display system is configured to determine whether the guest user is most likely looking at the virtual object by determining whether the guest user’s eyes are fixating within a volume encompassing the virtual object.

[0024] Example 4. The augmented reality display system of Example 3, wherein the display system is configured to: [0025] determine an uncertainty associated with determining a position of a fixation point of the wearer; and [0026] vary a size of the volume encompassing the virtual object based upon the uncertainty.

[0027] Example 5. The augmented reality display system of Example 1, wherein the display system is configured to transition to dynamic calibration of the guest user if an uncertainty associated with determining a position of a fixation point of the wearer exceeds a threshold value.

[0028] Example 6. The augmented reality display system of claim 1, wherein the display system is configured to transition to dynamic calibration of the guest user if an uncertainty associated with a location of the virtual object exceeds a threshold value.

[0029] Example 7. The augmented reality display system of Example 1, wherein, upon detecting that the calibrated user is no longer wearing the device after determining that the wearer is a calibrated user, the display system is configured to continue to utilize the calibrated user’s depth plane switching calibration information for a predetermined amount of time or for a predetermined number of image frames.

[0030] Example 8. The augmented reality display system of Example 1, wherein the head-mounted display comprises a waveguide stack configured to pass light from the world into an eye of the wearer, wherein the waveguide stack comprises a plurality of waveguides comprising one or more waveguides configured to output light to the eye of the wearer with a different amount of wavefront divergence than one or more other waveguides of the plurality of waveguides.

[0031] Example 9. A method for determining parameters for depth plane switching in a display system configured to direct image light to eyes of a user to display virtual image content, the display system configured to present the virtual image content on a plurality of depth planes, wherein each depth plane is associated with image light having a different amount of wavefront divergence, wherein the display system is configured to switch the virtual image content between different depth planes by changing a wavefront divergence of the image light, the method comprising: [0032] determining whether the user is a calibrated user or a guest user; [0033] when the user is determined to be a calibrated user: [0034] loading pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0035] setting depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0036] when the user is determined to be a guest user: [0037] determining whether the guest user is looking at a virtual object, wherein the virtual object has an associated depth plane; and [0038] setting depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the associated depth plane.

[0039] Example 10. The method of Example 9, wherein determining whether the guest user is looking at a virtual object comprises determining whether the guest user’s eyes are fixating within a volume encompassing the virtual object.

[0040] Example 11. The method of Example 10, further comprising: [0041] determining an uncertainty associated with determining a position of a fixation point of the user; and [0042] varying a size of the volume encompassing the virtual object based upon the uncertainty.

[0043] Example 12. The method of Example 9, further comprising transitioning from virtual content-based depth plane switching to dynamic calibration of the guest user if an uncertainty associated with determining a position of a fixation point of the user exceeds a threshold value, wherein virtual content-based depth plane switching comprises setting depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the associated depth plane.

[0044] Example 13. The method of Example 9, further comprising, upon detecting that the calibrated user is no longer wearing a display of the display system after determining that the user is a calibrated user, continue utilizing the calibrated user’s depth plane switching calibration information for a predetermined amount of time or for a predetermined number of image frames.

[0045] Example 14. The method of Example 9, wherein the display system comprises a waveguide stack configured to pass light from the world into an eye of the user, wherein the waveguide stack comprises a plurality of waveguides comprising one or more waveguides configured to output light to an eye of the user with a different amount of wavefront divergence than one or more other waveguides of the plurality of waveguides.

[0046] Example 15. An augmented reality display system comprising: [0047] a head-mounted display configured to present virtual content by outputting light to a wearer, wherein the head-mounted display comprises: [0048] a waveguide stack configured to pass light from the world into an eye of the wearer, wherein the waveguide stack comprises a plurality of waveguides, wherein one or more waveguides of the plurality of waveguides are configured to output light to the eye of the wearer with a different amount of wavefront divergence than one or more other waveguides of the plurality of waveguides, wherein different amounts of wavefront divergence are associated with different accommodation by the eye, and wherein the outputted light with different amounts of wavefront divergence forms virtual objects at different perceived depths away from the wearer; [0049] an imaging device configured to capture images of eyes of the wearer; and [0050] at least one processor communicatively coupled to the head-mounted display and the imaging device, the at least one processor configured to: [0051] determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user based at least in part on images of the eyes of the wearer from the imaging device; [0052] when the wearer is determined to be a calibrated user: [0053] load pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0054] set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0055] when the wearer is determined to be a guest user: [0056] determine the interpupillary distance of the guest user; and [0057] set depth plane switching parameters for the head-mounted display based upon the determined interpupillary distance.

[0058] Example 16. The augmented reality display system of Example 15, wherein the imaging device comprises a left eye tracking system and a right eye tracking system together configured to measure the wearer’s interpupillary distance.

[0059] Example 17. The augmented reality display system of Example 15, wherein the processor is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user based on the wearer’s interpupillary distance.

[0060] Example 18. The augmented reality display system of Example 15, wherein the processor is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user based on whether the wearer’s interpupillary distance is within a predetermined threshold of the interpupillary distance of the calibrated user.

[0061] Example 19. The augmented reality display system of Example 15, wherein the processor is configured to determine whether the wearer is a calibrated user or a guest user based on whether the wearer’s interpupillary distance is within 1.0 mm of the interpupillary distance of the calibrated user.

[0062] Example 20. A method for determining parameters for depth plane switching in a display system configured to direct image light to eyes of a user to display virtual image content, the eyes separated by an interpupillary distance and the display system configured to present the virtual image content on a plurality of depth planes, wherein each depth plane is associated with image light having a different amount of wavefront divergence, wherein the display system is configured to switch the virtual image content between different depth planes by changing a wavefront divergence of the image light, the method comprising: [0063] determining whether the user is a calibrated user or a guest user; [0064] when the user is determined to be a calibrated user: [0065] loading pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0066] setting depth plane switching parameters for the display system based upon the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information; and [0067] when the user is determined to be a guest user: [0068] determining the interpupillary distance of the guest user; and [0069] setting depth plane switching parameters for the display system based upon the determined interpupillary distance.

[0070] Example 21. The method of Example 20, wherein determining the interpupillary distance of the guest user comprises determining an interpupillary distance of eyes of the guest user focused at optical infinity.

[0071] Example 22. The method of Example 20, wherein determining whether the user is the calibrated user or is a guest user comprises determining the interpupillary distance of the user with one or more eye tracking cameras configured to image the eyes of the user.

[0072] Example 23. The method of Example 20, wherein determining whether the user is the calibrated user comprises determining the interpupillary distance of the user with one or more eye tracking cameras configured to image the eyes of the user and determining that the interpupillary distance of the user is within a predetermined range.

[0073] Example 24. The method of Example 23, wherein determining whether the user is the guest user comprises determining the interpupillary distance of the user with the one or more eye tracking cameras and determining that the interpupillary distance of the user is outside of the predetermined range.

[0074] Example 25. The method of Example 20, wherein the pre-existing user depth plane switching calibration information comprises an measured interpupillary distance of the calibrated user, wherein determining whether the user is the calibrated user or is a guest user comprises determining the interpupillary distance of the user, determining that the user is the calibrated user when the user’s interpupillary distance is within 1.0 mm of the measured interpupillary distance of the calibrated user, and determining that the user is a guest user when the user’s interpupillary distance is not within 1.0 mm of the measured interpupillary distance of the calibrated user.

[0075] Example 26. The method of Example 20, wherein determining whether the user is the calibrated user or is a guest user comprises identifying the user with at least one eye tracking camera.

[0076] Example 27. The method of Example 20, further comprising: [0077] with an eye tracking system, determining an optical axis for each of the user’s eyes; and [0078] determining a vergence depth of the user based at least on the determined optical axes for the user’s eyes and the set depth plane switching parameters.

[0079] Example 28. The method of Example 20, further comprising: [0080] determining a vergence distance of the user based at least in part on the set depth plane switching parameters.

[0081] Example 29. The method of Example 20, further comprising: [0082] selecting which depth plane to use to present the virtual image content based at least in part on the depth plane switching parameters.

[0083] Details of one or more implementations of the subject matter described in this specification are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, aspects, and advantages will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims. Neither this summary nor the following detailed description purports to define or limit the scope of the inventive subject matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0084] FIG. 1 depicts an illustration of a mixed reality scenario with certain virtual reality objects, and certain physical objects viewed by a person.

[0085] FIG. 2 schematically illustrates an example of a wearable system.

[0086] FIG. 3 schematically illustrates example components of a wearable system.

[0087] FIG. 4 schematically illustrates an example of a waveguide stack of a wearable device for outputting image information to a user.

[0088] FIG. 5 schematically illustrates an example of an eye and an example coordinate system for determining an eye pose of an eye.

[0089] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a wearable system that includes an eye tracking system.

[0090] FIG. 7A is a block diagram of a wearable system that may include an eye tracking system.

[0091] FIG. 7B is a block diagram of a render controller in a wearable system.

[0092] FIG. 7C is a block diagram of a registration observer in a head-mounted display system.

[0093] FIG. 8A is a schematic diagram of an eye showing the eye’s corneal sphere.

[0094] FIG. 8B illustrates an example corneal glint detected by an eye tracking camera.

[0095] FIGS. 8C-8E illustrate example stages of locating a user’s corneal center with an eye tracking module in a wearable system.

[0096] FIGS. 9A-9C illustrate an example normalization of the coordinate system of eye tracking images.

[0097] FIGS. 9D-9G illustrate example stages of locating a user’s pupil center with an eye tracking module in a wearable system.

[0098] FIG. 10 illustrates an example of an eye including the eye’s optical and visual axes and the eye’s center of rotation.

[0099] FIG. 11 is a process flow diagram of an example of a method for using eye tracking in rendering content and providing feedback on registration in a wearable device.

[0100] FIGS. 12A and 12B illustrate a nominal position of a display element relative to a user’s eye and illustrate a coordinate system for describing the positions of the display element and the user’s eye relative to one another.

[0101] FIG. 13 is a set of example graphs illustrating how the wearable system may switch depth planes in response to the user’s eye movements.

[0102] FIG. 14 is a process flow diagram of an example of a method for depth plane selection using an existing calibration, a dynamic calibration, and/or a content-based switching scheme.

[0103] FIG. 15 is a process flow diagram of an example of a method for depth plane selection based at least partly on a user’s interpupillary distance.

[0104] FIG. 16A illustrates an example of a top-down view of a representation of a user viewing content presented by a display system configured to switch depth planes by detecting user fixation within one of a plurality of zones that segment the user’s field of view along the horizontal axis.

[0105] FIG. 16B illustrates an example of a perspective view of the representation of FIG. 16A.

[0106] FIG. 17A illustrates an example of a top-down view of a representation of a user viewing content presented by a display system configured to switch depth planes by detecting user fixation within discrete marker volumes within the display frustum.

[0107] FIG. 17B illustrates an example of a perspective view of the representation of FIG. 16A.

[0108] FIG. 18 illustrates a flowchart of an example process to select a depth plane based on content-based switching.

[0109] FIG. 19 illustrates a flowchart of another example process to adjust zones based on content-based switching.

[0110] Throughout the drawings, reference numbers may be re-used to indicate correspondence between referenced elements. The drawings are provided to illustrate example embodiments described herein and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0111] As described herein, display systems (e.g., augmented reality or virtual reality display systems) may render virtual content for presentation to a user at different perceived depths from the user. In augmented reality display systems, different depth planes may be utilized to project virtual content with each depth plane being associated with a particular perceived depth from the user. For example, a stack of waveguides configured to output light with different wavefront divergences may be utilized, with each depth plane having a corresponding wavefront divergence and being associated with at least one waveguide. As virtual content moves about the user’s field of view, the virtual content may be adjusted along three discrete axes. For example, the virtual content may be adjusted along the X, Y, and Z axes such that the virtual content may be presented at different perceived depths from the user. The display system may switch between depth planes as the virtual content is perceived to be moved further from, or closer to, the user. It will be appreciated that switching depth planes may involve changing the wavefront divergence of light forming the virtual content in a discrete step. In a waveguide-based system, in some embodiments, such a depth plane switch may involve switching the waveguide outputting light to form the virtual content.

[0112] In some embodiments, the display system may be configured to monitor the gaze of a user’s eyes and determine a three-dimensional fixation point at which the user is fixating. The fixation point may be determined based upon, among other things, the distance between the user’s eyes and the gaze direction of each eye. It will be appreciated that these variables may be understood to form a triangle with the fixation point at one corner of the triangle and the eyes at the other corners. It will also be appreciated that a calibration may be performed to accurately track the orientations of the user’s eyes and determine or estimate the gaze of those eyes to determine the fixation point. Thus, after undergoing a full calibration, the display device may have a calibration file or calibration information for the main user of that device. The main user may also be referred to as a calibrated user herein. Further details regarding calibration and eye tracking may be found in, e.g., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/993,371, entitled “EYE TRACKING CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0113] The display system may occasionally be used by guest users that have not completed the full calibration. In addition, these guest users may not have the time or the desire to perform a full calibration. However, if the display system does not actually track the fixation point of the guest user, then the depth plane switching may not be appropriate for providing a realistic and comfortable viewing experience for the user.

[0114] Thus, it will be appreciated that the current user of the display system may be categorized as a calibrated user or as a guest user. In some embodiments, the display system may be configured to categorize the current user by determining whether or not the current user is a calibrated user by performing an identification, or authentication, process, e.g., to determine whether information provided by and/or obtained from the current user matches information associated with the calibrated user. For example, the authentication or identification process may be one or more of: asking for and verifying a username and/or password, conducting iris scanning (e.g., by comparing a current image of the user’s iris with a reference image), conducting voice recognition (e.g., by comparing a current sample of the user’s voice with a reference voice file), and IPD matching. In some embodiments, IPD matching may include determining whether the current user’s IPD matches the calibrated user’s IPD. If there is a match, the current user may be assumed to be the calibrated user in some embodiments. If there is no match, the current user may be assumed to not be the calibrated user (e.g., to be a guest user) in some embodiments. In some other embodiments, multiple authentication processes may be conducted for a current user to increase the accuracy of the determination of whether the current user is a calibrated user.

[0115] In some embodiments, if the current user is determined to not be a calibrated user (e.g., a guest user), the display system may use content-based depth plane switching; for example, rather than determining the fixation point of the user’s eyes and switch depth planes based on the depth plane in which the fixation point is location, the display system may be configured to display content with the appropriate amount of wavefront divergence for where, in 3D space, that content (e.g., a virtual object) is specified to be placed. It will be appreciated that virtual objects may have associated locations or coordinates in the three-dimensional volume around the user, and the display system may be configured to present the object using light with the amount of wavefront divergence appropriate for the object’s depth, relative to the user, within that three-dimensional volume.

[0116] In cases where multiple virtual objects at different depths are to be displayed, content-based depth plane switching may involve making a rough determination as to which virtual object is being fixated on and then using the location of that virtual object to establish the plane to which depth plane switching should switch; for example, upon determining that the user is roughly fixating on a particular virtual object, the display system may be configured to output light with wavefront divergence corresponding to the depth plane associated with that virtual object. In some embodiments, this rough determination of whether the user is fixating on an object may involve determining whether the fixation point is within a display system-defined volume unique to the object and, if yes, switching to the depth plane associated with that object, irrespective of the depth of the determined fixation point (so that, if the volume extends across multiple depth planes, the display system will switch to the depth plane associated with the object).

[0117] In some embodiments, if the current user is determined to not be a calibrated user (e.g., a guest user) the display system may perform a rough calibration by measuring the guest user’s interpupillary distance (IPD). This rough calibration may also be referred to as a dynamic calibration. Preferably, the IPD is measured while the user’s eyes are directed to, or focused on an object at, optical infinity. In some embodiments, this IPD value may be understood to be the maximum IPD value. The maximum IPD value may be used or a lesser value selected within a distribution of sampled values (e.g., the value at the 95.sup.th percentile of sampled IPD values) may be utilized as a reference value for determining the fixation point. For example, this IPD value may constitute one side (e.g., the base) of the imaginary triangle of which the fixation point forms a corner (e.g., the apex).

[0118] Thus, in some embodiments, the display system may be configured to monitor for whether the user is a main or guest user. If the user is a main user, then the calibration file may be accessed. If the user is a guest user, then content-based depth plane switching may be utilized, and/or a rough calibration involving determining IPD may be performed to establish a reference IPD value. The display system may be configured to use this reference IPD value to determine or estimate the guest user’s fixation point and, thus, make decisions regarding when to switch depth planes (e.g. when to switch the wavefront divergence of light used to form virtual content).

[0119] In some embodiments, the display system may transition from performing content-based depth plane switching to performing depth plane switching based on a dynamic calibration of the current user. For example, such a transition may occur in situations where data obtained in connection with the content-based depth plane switching scheme is deemed to be unreliable (e.g., where values for the virtual object that the user is roughly fixating on have high levels of uncertainty or variability), or where content is provided at a range of different depths spanning multiple depth planes (e.g., wherein the virtual content spans greater than a threshold number of depth planes).

[0120] Reference will now be made to the drawings, in which like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout. Unless indicated otherwise, the drawings are schematic not and necessarily drawn to scale.

Examples of 3D Display of a Wearable System

[0121] A wearable system (also referred to herein as an augmented reality (AR) system) can be configured to present 2D or 3D virtual images to a user. The images may be still images, frames of a video, or a video, in combination or the like. At least a portion of the wearable system can be implemented on a wearable device that can present a VR, AR, or MR environment, alone or in combination, for user interaction. The wearable device can be used interchangeably as an AR device (ARD). Further, for the purpose of the present disclosure, the term “AR” is used interchangeably with the term “MR”.

[0122] FIG. 1 depicts an illustration of a mixed reality scenario with certain virtual reality objects, and certain physical objects viewed by a person. In FIG. 1, an MR scene 100 is depicted wherein a user of an MR technology sees a real-world park-like setting 110 featuring people, trees, buildings in the background, and a concrete platform 120. In addition to these items, the user of the MR technology also perceives that he “sees” a robot statue 130 standing upon the real-world platform 120, and a cartoon-like avatar character 140 flying by which seems to be a personification of a bumble bee, even though these elements do not exist in the real world.

[0123] In order for the 3D display to produce a true sensation of depth, and more specifically, a simulated sensation of surface depth, it may be desirable for each point in the displays visual field to generate an accommodative response corresponding to its virtual depth. If the accommodative response to a display point does not correspond to the virtual depth of that point, as determined by the binocular depth cues of convergence and stereopsis, the human eye may experience an accommodation conflict, resulting in unstable imaging, harmful eye strain, headaches, and, in the absence of accommodation information, almost a complete lack of surface depth.

[0124] VR, AR, and MR experiences can be provided by display systems having displays in which images corresponding to a plurality of depth planes are provided to a viewer. The images may be different for each depth plane (e.g., provide slightly different presentations of a scene or object) and may be separately focused by the viewer’s eyes, thereby helping to provide the user with depth cues based on the accommodation of the eye required to bring into focus different image features for the scene located on different depth plane or based on observing different image features on different depth planes being out of focus. As discussed elsewhere herein, such depth cues provide credible perceptions of depth.

[0125] FIG. 2 illustrates an example of wearable system 200 which can be configured to provide an AR/VR/MR scene. The wearable system 200 can also be referred to as the AR system 200. The wearable system 200 includes a display 220, and various mechanical and electronic modules and systems to support the functioning of display 220. The display 220 may be coupled to a frame 230, which is wearable by a user, wearer, or viewer 210. The display 220 can be positioned in front of the eyes of the user 210. The display 220 can present AR/VR/MR content to a user. The display 220 can comprise a head mounted display (HMD) that is worn on the head of the user.

[0126] In some embodiments, a speaker 240 is coupled to the frame 230 and positioned adjacent the ear canal of the user (in some embodiments, another speaker, not shown, is positioned adjacent the other ear canal of the user to provide for stereo/shapeable sound control). The display 220 can include an audio sensor (e.g., a microphone) 232 for detecting an audio stream from the environment and capture ambient sound. In some embodiments, one or more other audio sensors, not shown, are positioned to provide stereo sound reception. Stereo sound reception can be used to determine the location of a sound source. The wearable system 200 can perform voice or speech recognition on the audio stream.

[0127] The wearable system 200 can include an outward-facing imaging system 464 (shown in FIG. 4) which observes the world in the environment around the user. The wearable system 200 can also include an inward-facing imaging system 462 (shown in FIG. 4) which can track the eye movements of the user. The inward-facing imaging system may track either one eye’s movements or both eyes’ movements. The inward-facing imaging system 462 may be attached to the frame 230 and may be in electrical communication with the processing modules 260 or 270, which may process image information acquired by the inward-facing imaging system to determine, e.g., the pupil diameters or orientations of the eyes, eye movements or eye pose of the user 210. The inward-facing imaging system 462 may include one or more cameras. For example, at least one camera may be used to image each eye. The images acquired by the cameras may be used to determine pupil size or eye pose for each eye separately, thereby allowing presentation of image information to each eye to be dynamically tailored to that eye.

[0128] As an example, the wearable system 200 can use the outward-facing imaging system 464 or the inward-facing imaging system 462 to acquire images of a pose of the user. The images may be still images, frames of a video, or a video.

[0129] The display 220 can be operatively coupled 250, such as by a wired lead or wireless connectivity, to a local data processing module 260 which may be mounted in a variety of configurations, such as fixedly attached to the frame 230, fixedly attached to a helmet or hat worn by the user, embedded in headphones, or otherwise removably attached to the user 210 (e.g., in a backpack-style configuration, in a belt-coupling style configuration).

[0130] The local processing and data module 260 may comprise a hardware processor, as well as digital memory, such as non-volatile memory (e.g., flash memory), both of which may be utilized to assist in the processing, caching, and storage of data. The data may include data a) captured from sensors (which may be, e.g., operatively coupled to the frame 230 or otherwise attached to the user 210), such as image capture devices (e.g., cameras in the inward-facing imaging system or the outward-facing imaging system), audio sensors (e.g., microphones), inertial measurement units (IMUs), accelerometers, compasses, global positioning system (GPS) units, radio devices, or gyroscopes; or b) acquired or processed using remote processing module 270 or remote data repository 280, possibly for passage to the display 220 after such processing or retrieval. The local processing and data module 260 may be operatively coupled by communication links 262 or 264, such as via wired or wireless communication links, to the remote processing module 270 or remote data repository 280 such that these remote modules are available as resources to the local processing and data module 260. In addition, remote processing module 280 and remote data repository 280 may be operatively coupled to each other.

[0131] In some embodiments, the remote processing module 270 may comprise one or more processors configured to analyze and process data or image information. In some embodiments, the remote data repository 280 may comprise a digital data storage facility, which may be available through the internet or other networking configuration in a “cloud” resource configuration. In some embodiments, all data is stored and all computations are performed in the local processing and data module, allowing fully autonomous use from a remote module.

Example Components of a Wearable System

[0132] FIG. 3 schematically illustrates example components of a wearable system. FIG. 3 shows a wearable system 200 which can include a display 220 and a frame 230. A blown-up view 202 schematically illustrates various components of the wearable system 200. In certain implements, one or more of the components illustrated in FIG. 3 can be part of the display 220. The various components alone or in combination can collect a variety of data (such as e.g., audio or visual data) associated with the user of the wearable system 200 or the user’s environment. It should be appreciated that other embodiments may have additional or fewer components depending on the application for which the wearable system is used. Nevertheless, FIG. 3 provides a basic idea of some of the various components and types of data that may be collected, analyzed, and stored through the wearable system.

[0133] FIG. 3 shows an example wearable system 200 which can include the display 220. The display 220 can comprise a display lens 226 that may be mounted to a user’s head or a housing or frame 230, which corresponds to the frame 230. The display lens 226 may comprise one or more transparent mirrors positioned by the housing 230 in front of the user’s eyes 302, 304 and may be configured to bounce projected light 338 into the eyes 302, 304 and facilitate beam shaping, while also allowing for transmission of at least some light from the local environment. The wavefront of the projected light beam 338 may be bent or focused to coincide with a desired focal distance of the projected light. As illustrated, two wide-field-of-view machine vision cameras 316 (also referred to as world cameras) can be coupled to the housing 230 to image the environment around the user. These cameras 316 can be dual capture visible light/non-visible (e.g., infrared) light cameras. The cameras 316 may be part of the outward-facing imaging system 464 shown in FIG. 4. Image acquired by the world cameras 316 can be processed by the pose processor 336. For example, the pose processor 336 can implement one or more object recognizers 708 (e.g., shown in FIG. 7) to identify a pose of a user or another person in the user’s environment or to identify a physical object in the user’s environment.

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