Magic Leap Patent | Nanograting Method And Apparatus

Patent: Nanograting Method And Apparatus

Publication Number: 20200041712

Publication Date: 20200206

Applicants: Magic Leap

Abstract

A method of manufacturing a waveguide having a combination of a binary grating structure and a blazed grating structure includes cutting a substrate off-axis, depositing a first layer on the substrate, and depositing a resist layer on the first layer. The resist layer includes a pattern. The method also includes etching the first layer in the pattern using the resist layer as a mask. The pattern includes a first region and a second region. The method further includes creating the binary grating structure in the substrate in the second region and creating the blazed grating structure in the substrate in the first region.

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/683,706 filed Aug. 22, 2017, which is a non-provisional of and claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/377,831, filed on Aug. 22, 2016; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/447,608, filed on Jan. 18, 2017; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/449,524, filed Jan. 23, 2017; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/509,969, filed on May 23, 2017; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/519,536, filed on Jun. 14, 2017; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/521,889, filed on Jun. 19, 2017, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Modern computing and display technologies have facilitated the development of systems for so called “virtual reality” or “augmented reality” experiences, wherein digitally reproduced images or portions thereof are presented to a user in a manner wherein they seem to be, or may be perceived as, real. A virtual reality, or “VR,” scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information without transparency to other actual real-world visual input; an augmented reality, or “AR,” scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information as an augmentation to visualization of the actual world around the user.

[0003] Despite the progress made in these display technologies, there is a need in the art for improved methods and systems related to augmented reality systems, particularly, display systems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The present disclosure relates to virtual reality and augmented reality imaging and visualization systems. The present disclosure relates generally to methods and systems related to projection display systems including wearable displays. More particularly, embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods and systems for reducing optical artifacts in projection display systems. The disclosure is applicable to a variety of applications in computer vision and image display systems.

[0005] According to some embodiments, an optical device includes the following: a frame defining a pair of eye openings and including a pair of arms configured to extend over the ears of a user of the optical device; a temperature monitoring system configured to monitor a distribution of heat within the frame; a display assembly configured to display content to a user of the optical device; and a processor configured to receive temperature data from the temperature monitoring system and to adjust an output of the display assembly based on variation in the distribution of heat within the frame.

[0006] According to some embodiments, an optical device includes the following: a frame assembly including a pair of arms configured to extend over the ears of a user of the optical device and defining and defining a first eye opening and a second eye opening; first and second projectors coupled to the frame assembly; diffractive optics configured to receive light emitted by the first and second projectors and orient the light toward the eyes of the user; and a processor configured to shift content projected by the first and second projectors in accordance with a thermal profile of the optical device.

[0007] According to some embodiments, an optical device includes the following: a frame assembly, which includes a pair of arms joined together by a front band, the pair of arms being configured to contact the ears of a user of the optical device, and a heat distribution system for directing heat generated by the optical device to heat dissipation regions of the optical device; electronic devices in thermal contact with the frame assembly by way of the heat distribution system, the heat distribution system being configured to distribute heat emitted by the plurality of electronic devices to the pair of arms and to the front band; a display assembly; and a processor configured to adjust operation of the display assembly in accordance with temperature changes of the plurality of electronic devices.

[0008] According to an embodiment of the present invention, an artifact mitigation system is provided. The artifact mitigation system includes a projector assembly, a set of imaging optics optically coupled to the projector assembly, and an eyepiece optically coupled to the set of imaging optics. The eyepiece includes an incoupling interface. The artifact mitigation system also includes an artifact prevention element disposed between the set of imaging optics and the eyepiece. The artifact prevention element includes a linear polarizer, a first quarter waveplate disposed adjacent the linear polarizer, and a color select component disposed adjacent the first quarter waveplate.

[0009] According to another embodiment of the present invention, an artifact mitigation system is provided. The artifact mitigation system includes a projector assembly, a set of imaging optics optically coupled to the projector assembly, and an eyepiece optically coupled to the set of imaging optics. The eyepiece includes an incoupling region having a first set of incoupling diffractive elements and a second set of incoupling diffractive elements. The artifact mitigation system further includes a set of color filters disposed between the set of imaging optics and the eyepiece. The set of color filters includes a first filter disposed adjacent the first set of incoupling diffractive elements and a second filter disposed adjacent the second set of incoupling diffractive elements.

[0010] According to a specific embodiment of the present invention, a projector assembly is provided. The projector assembly includes a polarization beam splitter (PBS), a set of spatially displaced light sources disposed adjacent the PBS, and a collimator disposed adjacent the PBS. The set of spatially displaced light sources can include a set of three LEDs having different colors. In some embodiments, the set of spatially displaced light sources are adjacent a first side of the PBS. The collimator can be adjacent a second side of the PBS adjacent the first side.

[0011] The projector assembly also includes a display panel (e.g., an LCOS panel) disposed adjacent the PBS, a circular polarizer disposed adjacent the PBS, and a set of imaging optics disposed adjacent the PBS. The circular polarizer can be disposed between the PBS and the set of imaging optics. The display panel can be disposed adjacent a third side of the PBS, wherein the third side is adjacent the first side and opposite to the second side. Furthermore, the set of imaging optics can be disposed adjacent a fourth side of the PBS, wherein the fourth side is opposite to the first side.

[0012] In an embodiment, the set of imaging optics form an image of the display panel at an incoupling interface. In this embodiment, the projector assembly includes an eyepiece positioned at the incoupling interface. Each of the light sources of the set of spatially displaced light sources can be imaged at a separate portion of the incoupling interface. The eyepiece can include a plurality of waveguide layers.

[0013] Some embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems for projecting images to a user’s eye using one or more waveguides layered together in an eyepiece. The waveguides may include one or gratings and/or diffractive elements disposed within or on one or more surfaces of the waveguides.

[0014] In some embodiments, a waveguide for viewing a projected image is provided. The waveguide may include a substrate for guiding light. The waveguide may also include an incoupling diffractive element disposed within or on the substrate and configured to diffract an incoupled light related to the projected image into the substrate. The waveguide may further include a first grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to manipulate the diffracted incoupled light from the incoupling diffractive element so as to multiply the projected image and to direct the multiplied projected image to a second grating. In some embodiments, the waveguide includes the second grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to outcouple the manipulated diffracted incoupled light from the waveguide. In some embodiments, the first grating and the second grating occupy a same region of the waveguide.

[0015] In some embodiments, the first grating and the second grating are disposed on or within a same side of the substrate such that the first grating and the second grating are superimposed onto each other. In some embodiments, the first grating and the second grating are disposed on or within different sides of the substrate. In some embodiments, the waveguide may include a third grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to manipulate the diffracted incoupled light from the incoupling diffractive element so as to multiply the projected image and to direct the multiplied projected image to the second grating. In some embodiments, the first grating is configured to direct the multiplied projected image to the second grating in a first direction. In some embodiments, the third grating is configured to direct the multiplied projected image to the second grating in a second direction, the second direction being opposite the first direction. In some embodiments, the first grating, the second grating, and the third grating are disposed on or within a same side of the substrate such that the first grating, the second grating, and the third grating are superimposed onto each other. In some embodiments, the first grating and the third grating are disposed on or within a same side of the substrate such that the first grating and the third grating are superimposed onto each other. In some embodiments, the second grating is disposed on or within an opposite side of the substrate.

[0016] In some embodiments, an eyepiece for viewing a projected image is provided. The eyepiece may include a plurality of waveguides coupled together in a layered arrangement. In some embodiments, each waveguide of the plurality of waveguides includes a substrate, an incoupling diffractive element, a first grating, and a second grating.

[0017] In some embodiments, a waveguide for viewing a projected image is provided. The waveguide may include a substrate for guiding light. The waveguide may also include an incoupling diffractive element disposed within or on the substrate and configured to diffract an incoupled light related to the projected image into the substrate in at least a first direction and a second direction. The waveguide may further include a first grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to manipulate the diffracted incoupled light in the first direction so as to multiply the projected image and to direct a first multiplied projected image to a third grating. In some embodiments, the waveguide includes a second grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to manipulate the diffracted incoupled light in the second direction so as to multiply the projected image and to direct a second multiplied projected image to the third grating. In some embodiments, the third grating is disposed within or on the substrate and is configured to outcouple at least a portion of the first multiplied projected image from the waveguide and to outcouple at least a portion of the second multiplied projected image from the waveguide.

[0018] In some embodiments, the incoupling diffractive element is configured to diffract the incoupled light related to the projected image into the substrate in a third direction. In some embodiments, the third grating is configured to outcouple at least a portion of the diffracted incoupled light in the third direction from the waveguide. In some embodiments, the first direction is substantially opposite the second direction. In some embodiments, the third direction is substantially orthogonal to the first direction and the second direction. In some embodiments, the incoupling diffractive element comprises two superimposed diffraction gratings that are orthogonal to each other. In some embodiments, the first direction forms a 120 degree angle with the second direction. In some embodiments, the third direction forms a 60 degree angle with each of the first direction and the second direction. In some embodiments, the incoupling diffractive element comprises a plurality of islands laid out in a hexagonal grid. In some embodiments, a plurality of the waveguides may be coupled together in a layered arrangement.

[0019] Some embodiments include a plurality of waveguides coupled together in a layered arrangement, wherein each waveguide of the plurality of waveguides includes a substrate for guiding light, an incoupling diffractive element disposed within or on the substrate and configured to diffract an incoupled light related to the projected image into the substrate, a first grating disposed within or on the substrate and configured to manipulate the diffracted incoupled light from the incoupling diffractive element so as to multiply the projected image and to direct the multiplied projected image to a second grating, and the second grating disposed within or on the substrate configured to outcouple the manipulated diffracted incoupled light from the waveguide.

[0020] According to an embodiment of the present invention, an eyepiece for projecting an image to an eye of a viewer is provided. The eyepiece includes a planar waveguide having a front surface and a back surface, the planar waveguide is configured to propagate light in a first wavelength range. The eyepiece also includes a grating coupled to the back surface of the waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the light propagating in the waveguide out of a plane of the waveguide toward a first direction and to diffract a second portion of the light propagating in the waveguide out of the plane of the waveguide toward a second direction opposite to the first direction. The eyepiece further includes a wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the front surface of the waveguide and configured to reflect light in the first wavelength range and transmit light outside the first wavelength range, such that the wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the light back toward the first direction.

[0021] According to another embodiment of the present invention, an eyepiece for projecting an image to an eye of a viewer is provided. The eyepiece includes a first planar waveguide having a first front surface and a first back surface and a second planar waveguide disposed substantially parallel to and in front of the first planar waveguide. The first planar waveguide is configured to propagate first light in a first wavelength range. The second planar waveguide has a second front surface and a second back surface and is configured to propagate second light in a second wavelength range. The eyepiece also includes a third planar waveguide disposed substantially parallel to and in front of the second planar waveguide. The third planar waveguide has a third front surface and a third back surface and is configured to propagate third light in a third wavelength range. The eyepiece further includes a first grating coupled to the first back surface of the first planar waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the first light propagating in the first planar waveguide out of a plane of the first planar waveguide toward a first direction and to diffract a second portion of the first light out of the plane of the first planar waveguide toward a second direction opposite to the first direction. The eyepiece additionally includes a second grating coupled to the second back surface of the second planar waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the second light propagating in the second planar waveguide out of a plane of the second planar waveguide toward the first direction and to diffract a second portion of the second light out of the plane of the second planar waveguide toward the second direction. The eyepiece also includes a third grating coupled to the third back surface of the third planar waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the third light propagating in the third planar waveguide out of a plane of the third planar waveguide toward the first direction and to diffract a second portion of the third light out of the plane of the third planar waveguide toward the second direction.

[0022] The eyepiece includes a first wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the first front surface of the first planar waveguide and configured to reflect light in the first wavelength range and transmit light outside the first wavelength range, such that the first wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the first light back toward the first direction. The eyepiece also includes a second wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the second front surface of the second planar waveguide and configured to reflect light in the second wavelength range and transmit light outside the second wavelength range, such that the second wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the second light back toward the first direction. The eyepiece further includes a third wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the third front surface of the third planar waveguide and configured to reflect light in the third wavelength range and transmit light outside the third wavelength range, such that the third wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the third light back toward the first direction.

[0023] According to a specific embodiment of the present invention, an eyepiece for projecting an image to an eye of a viewer is provided. The eyepiece includes a first planar waveguide having a first front surface and a first back surface and configured to propagate first light in a first wavelength range. The eyepiece also includes a second planar waveguide disposed substantially parallel to and in front of the first planar waveguide. The second planar waveguide has a second front surface and a second back surface and is configured to propagate second light in a second wavelength range. The eyepiece further includes a third planar waveguide disposed substantially parallel to and in front of the second planar waveguide. The third planar waveguide has a third front surface and a third back surface and is configured to propagate third light in a third wavelength range.

[0024] Additionally, the eyepiece includes a first grating coupled to the first front surface of the first planar waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the first light propagating in the first planar waveguide out of a plane of the first planar waveguide toward a first direction and to diffract a second portion of the first light out of the plane of the first planar waveguide toward a second direction opposite to the first direction. The eyepiece also includes a second grating coupled to the second front surface of the second planar waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the second light propagating in the second planar waveguide out of a plane of the second planar waveguide toward the first direction and to diffract a second portion of the second light out of the plane of the second planar waveguide toward the second direction. The eyepiece further includes a third grating coupled to the third front surface of the third waveguide and configured to diffract a first portion of the third light propagating in the third planar waveguide out of a plane of the third planar waveguide toward the first direction and to diffract a second portion of the third light out of the plane of the third planar waveguide toward the second direction.

[0025] Moreover, the eyepiece includes a first wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the second back surface of the second planar waveguide and configured to reflect light in the first wavelength range and transmit light outside the first wavelength range, such that the first wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the first light back toward the first direction. The eyepiece also includes a second wavelength-selective reflector coupled to the third back surface of the third planar waveguide and configured to reflect light in the second wavelength range and transmit light outside the second wavelength range, such that the second wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the second light back toward the first direction. The eyepiece further includes a front cover plate disposed substantially parallel to and in front of the third planar waveguide and a third wavelength-selective reflector coupled to a surface of the front cover plate. The third planar waveguide is configured to reflect light in the third wavelength range and transmit light outside the third wavelength range, such that the third wavelength-selective reflector reflects at least part of the second portion of the third light back toward the first direction.

[0026] Some embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods and systems for improving quality and uniformity in projection display systems.

[0027] According to some embodiments, a method of manufacturing a waveguide having a combination of a binary grating structure and a blazed grating structure is provided. The method comprises cutting a substrate off-axis. The method further comprises depositing a first layer on the substrate. The method further comprises depositing a resist layer on the first layer, wherein the resist layer includes a pattern. The method further comprises etching the first layer in the pattern using the resist layer as a mask, wherein the pattern includes a first region and a second region. The method further comprises removing the resist layer. The method further comprises coating a first polymer layer in the first region of the pattern. The method further comprises etching the substrate in the second region of the pattern, creating the binary grating structure in the substrate in the second region. The method further comprises removing the first polymer layer. The method further comprises coating a second polymer layer in the second region of the pattern. The method further comprises etching the substrate in the first region of the pattern, creating the blazed grating structure in the substrate in the first region. The method further comprises removing the second polymer layer. The method further comprises removing the first layer from the substrate.

[0028] According to some embodiments, a method of manufacturing a waveguide having a multi-level binary grating structure is provided. The method comprises coating a first etch stop layer on a first substrate. The method further comprises adding a second substrate on the first etch stop layer. The method further comprises depositing a first resist layer on the second substrate, wherein the first resist layer includes at least one first opening. The method further comprises depositing a second etch stop layer on the second substrate in the at least one first opening. The method further comprises removing the first resist layer from the second substrate. The method further comprises adding a third substrate on the second substrate and the second etch stop layer. The method further comprises depositing a second resist layer on the third substrate, wherein the second resist layer includes at least one second opening. The method further comprises depositing a third etch stop layer on the third substrate in the at least one second opening. The method further comprises removing the second resist layer from the third substrate. The method further comprises etching the second substrate and the third substrate, leaving the first substrate, the first etch stop layer, the second etch stop layer and the second substrate in the at least one first opening, and the third etch stop layer and the third substrate in the at least one second opening. The method further comprises etching an exposed portion of the first etch stop layer, an exposed portion of the second etch stop layer, and the third etch stop layer, forming the multi-level binary grating.

[0029] According to some embodiments, a method of manufacturing a waveguide having a blazed grating structure is provided. The method comprises cutting a substrate off-axis. The method further comprises depositing a resist layer on the substrate, wherein the resist layer includes a pattern. The method further comprises etching the substrate in the pattern using the resist layer as a mask, creating the blazed grating structure in the substrate. The method further comprises removing the resist layer from the substrate.

[0030] According to some embodiments, a method of manipulating light by an eyepiece layer is provided. The method comprises receiving light from a light source at an input coupling grating having a first grating structure characterized by a first set of grating parameters. The method further comprises receiving light from the input coupling grating at an expansion grating having a second grating structure characterized by a second set of grating parameters. The method further comprises receiving light from the expansion grating at an output coupling grating having a third grating structure characterized by a third set of grating parameters. At least one of the first grating structure, the second grating structure, or the third grating structure has a duty cycle that is graded.

[0031] Some embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems for dithering eyepiece layers of a wearable display device.

[0032] According to some embodiments, a device is provided. The device comprises an input coupling grating having a first grating structure characterized by a first set of grating parameters. The input coupling grating is configured to receive light from a light source. The device further comprises an expansion grating having a second grating structure characterized by a second set of grating parameters varying in at least two dimensions. The second grating structure is configured to receive light from the input coupling grating. The device further comprises an output coupling grating having a third grating structure characterized by a third set of grating parameters. The output coupling grating is configured to receive light from the expansion grating and to output light to a viewer.

[0033] According to some embodiments, an optical structure is provided. The optical structure comprises a waveguide layer lying at least partially in a plane defined by a first dimension and a second dimension. The optical structure further comprises a diffractive element coupled to the waveguide layer and operable to diffract light in the plane. The diffractive element is characterized by a set of diffraction parameters that vary in at least the first dimension and the second dimension.

[0034] Numerous benefits are achieved by way of the present disclosure over conventional techniques. For example, embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems that improve the reliability and performance of augmented reality display systems. High efficiency heat spreading and heat dissipation devices are described that distribute and dissipate heat generated due to operation of the wearable device. Methods and systems are described for adapting the output of display systems of the wearable device to account for changes in relative positioning of optical sensors, projectors and wearable display optics resulting from uneven thermal distribution or rapid increases in thermal loading.

[0035] Other embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods and systems that reduce or eliminate artifacts including ghost images in projection display systems. Additionally, embodiments of the present disclosure reduce eye strain, reduce artifacts due to stray light, and improve resolution, ANSI contrast, and general signal to noise of the displayed images or videos.

[0036] For example, embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems that improve the scalability of eyepieces for use in augmented reality applications by decreasing the dimensions of the eyepiece and/or increasing the field of view for the user, or improving light properties of light that is delivered to a user such as brightness. Smaller dimensions of the eyepiece are often critical to user comfort when a user is wearing a particular system. Embodiments of the present invention also enable high quality images to be projected to the user’s eye due to the wide range and density of light exit points within the eyepiece.

[0037] Other embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods and systems for providing gratings on eyepiece layers that improve the passage of light in projection display systems. Additionally, some embodiments of the present disclosure may provide increases in the uniformity of light intensity across an output image being projected to a viewer. In some embodiments, uniformity may be balanced, resulting in improved manufacturability and greater flexibility of design. These and other embodiments of the disclosure along with many of its advantages and features are described in more detail in conjunction with the text below and attached figures.

[0038] Some embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems that improve uniformity of luminance, uniformity of intensity, diffraction efficiency, and/or brightness of output light, while reducing image artifacts, wave interference, and/or reflections.

[0039] It should be noted that one or more of the embodiments and implementations described herein may be combined to provide functionality enabled by the combination of the different implementations. Accordingly, the embodiments described herein can be implemented independently or in combination as appropriate to the particular application. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

[0040] These and other embodiments of the disclosure along with many of its advantages and features are described in more detail in conjunction with the text below and attached figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0041] FIG. 1 is a drawing illustrating an augmented reality (AR) scene as viewed through a wearable AR device according to an embodiment described herein.

[0042] FIG. 2A illustrates stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) displays.

[0043] FIG. 2B illustrates variable depth plane accommodation distances.

[0044] FIG. 3A illustrates accommodation-vergence focus at a given depth plane.

[0045] FIG. 3B illustrates accommodation-vergence mismatch relative to a given depth plane.

[0046] FIG. 4 illustrates comparative accommodation-vergence mismatch between two objects beyond a given depth plane.

[0047] FIG. 5 illustrates depth plane selection and effects on accommodation-vergence mismatch according to some embodiments.

[0048] FIGS. 6A-B illustrate comparative accommodation-vergence mismatch between two objects given certain depth planes according to some embodiments.

[0049] FIGS. 7A-B illustrate cross section views of light projection into a user’s eye through a waveguide according to some embodiments.

[0050] FIG. 8 illustrates a light field projected to a user’s eye by a diffractive optical element (DOE) in a waveguide according to some embodiments.

[0051] FIG. 9 illustrates a wide light field projected to a user’s eye by a plurality of DOEs in a waveguide according to some embodiments.

[0052] FIG. 10 illustrates a focused light pattern outcoupled to a user’s eye by a DOE within a waveguide according to some embodiments.

[0053] FIG. 11 illustrates beamlets injected into a plurality of subpupils of a user’s eye according to some embodiments.

[0054] FIG. 12 illustrates focusing certain collimated beamlets through subpupils as if the aggregate beamlets were a larger diameter single beam according to some embodiments.

[0055] FIG. 13 illustrates a stack of waveguides outcoupling light to a user’s eye while also permitting world light to permeate through the stack to the user’s eye according to some embodiments.

[0056] FIG. 14 illustrates an incoupling DOE, an orthogonal DOE, and an exit DOE configured to redirect injected light into, through, and out of a plurality of waveguides according to some embodiments.

[0057] FIG. 15 illustrates a wearable augmented reality display system according to some embodiments.

[0058] FIG. 16A illustrates an interaction of a user of an augmented reality display system interacting with a real world environment according to some embodiments.

[0059] FIG. 16B illustrates components to a viewing optics assembly according to some embodiments.

[0060] FIG. 17 illustrates an exploded view of a head mounted display with certain components according to some embodiments.

[0061] FIG. 18 illustrates an exploded view of a viewing optics assembly according to some embodiments.

[0062] FIG. 19 illustrates a world camera assembly according to some embodiments.

[0063] FIG. 20 illustrates schematically the light paths in a viewing optics assembly (VOA) that may be used to present a digital or virtual image to a viewer, according to an embodiment described herein.

[0064] FIG. 21 illustrates an example of an eyepiece according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0065] FIG. 22 illustrates an example of layers of waveguides for an eyepiece according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0066] FIG. 23 illustrates an example of a path of a single beamlet of light incoupled into a waveguide of an eyepiece according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0067] FIG. 24 illustrates an example of an over/under topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0068] FIG. 25 illustrates an example of an overlap topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0069] FIG. 26 illustrates an example of an in-line topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0070] FIG. 27 illustrates an example of an OPE with zones of varying diffraction efficiency according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0071] FIG. 28 illustrates an example of a tip and clip topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0072] FIG. 29 illustrates an example of a bowtie topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0073] FIG. 30A illustrates an example of a bowtie topology for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0074] FIG. 30B illustrates various magnified views of diffractive optical features for a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0075] FIG. 30C illustrates the optical operation of the OPE regions for the waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0076] FIG. 31A illustrates an example of a waveguide which includes an input coupler region having two superimposed diffraction gratings according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0077] FIG. 31B illustrates a perspective view of an example of an input coupler region made up of two superimposed diffraction gratings according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0078] FIG. 32A illustrates an example of a waveguide having a compact form factor according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0079] FIG. 32B illustrates an example of diffractive optical features of an input coupler region of a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0080] FIG. 32C illustrates an example of diffractive optical features of an OPE region of a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0081] FIG. 33A illustrates an example of a waveguide having a combined OPE/EPE region in a single-sided configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0082] FIG. 33B illustrates an example of a combined OPE/EPE region in a single-sided configuration, captured by an SEM according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0083] FIG. 33C illustrates an example of a light path within a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0084] FIG. 33D illustrates a side view of an example of a light path within a waveguide according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0085] FIG. 34A illustrates an example of a waveguide having a combined OPE/EPE region in a two-sided configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0086] FIG. 34B illustrates a side view of a waveguide and a light path according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0087] FIGS. 35A-35J illustrate various designs of waveguides for implementation in an eyepiece according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0088] FIG. 36A is a simplified plan view diagram illustrating a diffractive element with a periodically varying index of refraction according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0089] FIG. 36B is a simplified plan view diagram illustrating a diffractive element with a distributed variation in index of refraction according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0090] FIG. 36C is a simplified plan view diagram illustrating a set of diffractive elements with varying index of refraction according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0091] FIG. 36D is a simplified plan view diagram illustrating a set of diffractive elements having different uniform index of refractions according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0092] FIG. 36E is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of fabricating a diffractive element with varying index of refraction according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0093] FIG. 36F is an image illustrating a film of varying index of refraction abutting a planar substrate according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0094] FIG. 36G is an image illustrating a film of varying index of refraction abutting a diffractive substrate according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0095] FIG. 36H is an image illustrating a film of varying index of refraction in a first diffractive element according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0096] FIG. 36I is an image illustrating a film of varying index of refraction in a second diffractive element according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0097] FIG. 36J is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of fabricating a diffractive element with varying index of refraction according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0098] FIG. 36K is a simplified side view diagram illustrating a variable index of refraction structure for a diffractive element according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0099] FIG. 36L is a simplified side view diagram illustrating a multi-layer variable index of refraction structure for a diffractive element according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0100] FIG. 37 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary optical system using diffractive structures on a substrate according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0101] FIG. 38 shows photographs of electric field intensity exhibiting wave interference for different fields-of-view and different thicknesses of waveguides according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0102] FIG. 39A is a simplified diagram illustrating an undithered OPE and its output image according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0103] FIG. 39B is a simplified diagram illustrating a sinusoidally dithered OPE and its output image according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0104] FIG. 39C is a simplified diagram illustrating an optimized 2D-dithered OPE and its output image according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0105] FIG. 39D shows photographs comparing an image with many artifacts and an image with fewer artifacts according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0106] FIG. 40A shows an example of adding continuous phase variation patterns to a diffractive structure according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0107] FIG. 40B shows output images from an optical system having a diffractive structure without and with phase variations according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0108] FIG. 40C shows an example of adding a discrete phase variation pattern to a diffractive structure according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0109] FIG. 41A show simplified diagrams illustrating different slowly-varying dither patterns for gratings according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0110] FIGS. 41B-C show different types of discrete phase variation patterns that can be implemented in diffractive structures according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0111] FIG. 42A is a simplified diagram illustrating additional dither variation patterns for gratings according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0112] FIG. 42B shows an example method of fabricating a diffraction grating with varying grating heights to implement phase perturbations in the diffraction grating according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0113] FIG. 42C is a flow diagram of an exemplary method of fabricating a diffractive structure with a phase variation pattern according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0114] FIG. 42D is a flow diagram of an exemplary method of manipulating light by a dithered eyepiece layer according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0115] FIG. 43 is a schematic diagram of light diffracted in an example device including a diffractive structure in a waveguide according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0116] FIG. 44A is a simplified diagram illustrating light paths through a beam multiplier according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0117] FIG. 44B is a simplified diagram illustrating light paths through a beam multiplier that manipulated wave interference according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0118] FIGS. 45A-B are a simplified diagrams comparing light paths through dithering of a grating structure according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0119] FIG. 46 is a block diagram illustrating a viewing optics system in a near-to-eye display device according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0120] FIG. 47A is a block diagram of a waveguide display according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0121] FIG. 47B is an output image produced using a waveguide display according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0122] FIG. 48A is a block diagram illustrating multiple inputs into a waveguide display according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0123] FIG. 48B is an output image from a waveguide display having multiple inputs according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0124] FIG. 48C is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method for generation of multiple incoherent images in a waveguide display using multiple input light beams according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0125] FIG. 49A is a block diagram illustrating a single input into a waveguide display utilizing a diffractive beam splitter according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0126] FIG. 49B is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method for generation of multiple incoherent images in a waveguide display using a diffractive beam splitter according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0127] FIG. 50A is a block diagram illustrating a single input into a waveguide display utilizing multiple diffractive beam splitters according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0128] FIG. 50B is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method for generation of multiple incoherent images in a waveguide display using multiple diffractive beam splitters according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0129] FIG. 51A is a block diagram illustrating a telecentric projector system according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0130] FIG. 51B is a block diagram illustrating a non-telecentric projector system according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0131] FIG. 52 is a block diagram illustrating a system for suppressing reflections from a telecentric projector in a near-to-eye display device according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0132] FIG. 53A is a block diagram illustrating a square lattice grating structure on a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0133] FIG. 53B is a photograph illustrating a circular round element grating structure on a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0134] FIG. 54A is a top view of binary grating ridges of a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0135] FIG. 54B is a top review of cross-cut binary grating ridges of a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0136] FIG. 55 is a top view of cross-cut biased grating ridges of a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0137] FIG. 56 is a photograph illustrating a triangular element grating structure on a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0138] FIG. 57 is a photograph illustrating an oval element grating structure on a diffractive optical element according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0139] FIG. 58 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of suppressing reflections from telecentric projectors in near-to-eye display devices according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0140] FIG. 59A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a plan view of a diffractive structure characterized by a constant diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0141] FIG. 59B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a plan view of a diffractive structure characterized by regions of differing diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0142] FIG. 59C is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a plan view of a diffractive structure characterized by regions of differing diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0143] FIGS. 60A-H are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating a process for fabricating variable diffraction efficiency gratings using gray scale lithography according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0144] FIGS. 61A-C are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating a process for fabricating regions with differing surface heights according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0145] FIGS. 62A-C are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating a process for fabricating regions with gratings having differing diffraction efficiencies according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0146] FIGS. 63A-H are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating use of a multi-level etching process to fabricate regions characterized by differing diffraction efficiencies according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0147] FIGS. 64A-H are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating use of a multi-level etching process to fabricate variable diffraction efficiency gratings according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0148] FIG. 65 is a simplified cross-sectional view of an incoupling grating according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0149] FIG. 66 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of fabricating a diffractive structure with varying diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0150] FIG. 67 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of fabricating a diffractive structure characterized by regions of differing diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0151] FIGS. 68A-D are simplified process flow diagrams illustrating a process for fabricating variable diffraction efficiency gratings using gray scale lithography according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0152] FIG. 69 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of fabricating a diffractive structure with varying diffraction efficiency according to some embodiments of the present invention.

[0153] FIG. 70 illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of an eyepiece according to some embodiments.

[0154] FIG. 71 illustrates schematically exemplary reflectance spectra of some wavelength-selective reflectors according to some embodiments.

[0155] FIG. 72 illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of an eyepiece according to some other embodiments.

[0156] FIG. 73 illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of an eyepiece according to some other embodiments.

[0157] FIG. 74 illustrates schematically exemplary reflectance spectra of a long-pass filter and of a short-pass filter, according to some embodiments.

[0158] FIG. 75 illustrates an example of a metasurface according to some embodiments.

[0159] FIG. 76 shows plots of transmission and reflection spectra for a metasurface having the general structure shown in FIG. 75 according to some embodiments.

[0160] FIGS. 77A and 77B show a top view and a side view, respectively, of a metasurface that is formed by one-dimensional nanobeams according to some embodiments.

[0161] FIGS. 77C and 77D show a plan view and a side view, respectively, of a metasurface that is formed by one-dimensional nanobeams according to some other embodiments.

[0162] FIGS. 78A and 78B show a top view and a side view, respectively, of a single-layer two-dimensional metasurface that is formed by a plurality of nano antennas formed on a surface of a substrate according to some embodiments.

[0163] FIGS. 78C and 78D show a plan view and a side view, respectively, of a multilayer two-dimensional metasurface according to some embodiments.

[0164] FIG. 79 shows plots of simulated reflectance as a function of angle of incidence for a wavelength corresponding to green color (solid line), and for a wavelength corresponding to red color (dashed line) of the metasurface illustrated in FIGS. 77C and 77D, for TE polarization, according to some embodiments.

[0165] FIG. 80 shows plots of a simulated reflectance spectrum (solid line) and a simulated transmission spectrum (dashed line) of the metasurface illustrated in FIGS. 77C and 77D, for TE polarization, according to some embodiments.

[0166] FIG. 81 shows plots of simulated reflectance as a function of angle of incidence for a wavelength corresponding to green color (solid line), and for a wavelength corresponding to red color (dashed line) of the metasurface illustrated in FIGS. 77C and 77D, for TM polarization, according to some embodiments.

[0167] FIG. 82 shows plots of a simulated reflectance spectrum (solid line) and a simulated transmission spectrum (dashed line) of the metasurface illustrated in FIGS. 77C and 77D, for TM polarization, according to some embodiments.

[0168] FIGS. 83A-83F illustrate schematically how a composite metasurface may be formed by interleaving two sub-metasurfaces according to some embodiments.

[0169] FIGS. 84A and 84B show a top view and a side view, respectively, of a metasurface according to some embodiments.

[0170] FIG. 84C illustrates schematically reflectance spectra of the metasurface illustrated in FIGS. 84A and 84B as a function of angle of incidence according to some embodiments.

[0171] FIG. 85A illustrates schematically a partial side view of an eyepiece 8500 according to some embodiments.

[0172] FIG. 85B illustrates schematically a top view of the wavelength-selective reflector shown in FIG. 85A according to some embodiments.

[0173] FIG. 86A illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of a volume phase hologram according to some embodiments.

[0174] FIG. 86B illustrates schematically a reflectance spectrum of the volume phase hologram illustrated in FIG. 86A according to some embodiments.

[0175] FIG. 86C illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of a volume phase hologram according to some embodiments.

[0176] FIG. 86D illustrates schematically a reflectance spectrum of the volume phase hologram illustrated in FIG. 86C according to some embodiments.

[0177] FIG. 86E illustrates schematically a partial cross-sectional view of a composite volume phase hologram according to some embodiments.

[0178] FIG. 86F illustrates schematically a side view of a composite volume phase hologram formed on a waveguide according to some embodiments.

[0179] FIG. 87 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of a projector according to one embodiments.

[0180] FIG. 88 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example of a projector according to one embodiment.

[0181] FIG. 89 is a schematic diagram illustrating multiple colors of light being coupled into corresponding waveguides using an incoupling grating disposed in each waveguide, according to one embodiment.

[0182] FIGS. 90A-90C are top views of distributed sub-pupil architectures according to one embodiment.

[0183] FIG. 91 is a schematic diagram illustrating time sequential encoding of colors for multiple depth planes, according to one embodiment.

[0184] FIG. 92A is a schematic diagram illustrating a projector assembly according to one embodiment.

[0185] FIG. 92B is an unfolded schematic diagram illustrating the projector assembly shown in FIG. 92A.

[0186] FIG. 93A is a schematic diagram illustrating an artifact formation in a projector assembly according to one embodiment.

[0187] FIG. 93B is an unfolded schematic diagram illustrating artifact formation in the projector assembly shown in FIG. 93A.

[0188] FIG. 94 illustrates presence of an artifact in a scene for the projector assembly illustrated in FIG. 92A.

[0189] FIG. 95A is a schematic diagram illustrating a projector assembly with artifact prevention according to one embodiment.

[0190] FIG. 95B is a flowchart illustrating a method of reducing optical artifacts according to one embodiment.

[0191] FIG. 96 illustrates reduction in intensity of the artifact using the projector assembly shown in FIG. 95A.

[0192] FIG. 97A is a schematic diagram illustrating artifact formation resulting from reflections from an in-coupling grating element in a projection display system, according to one embodiment.

[0193] FIG. 97B is an unfolded schematic diagram illustrating artifact formation resulting from reflections from an in-coupling grating in the projection display system shown in FIG. 97A.

[0194] FIG. 98 is a schematic diagram illustrating reflections from an in-coupling grating element, according to one embodiment.

[0195] FIG. 99A is a schematic diagram illustrating a projector assembly with artifact prevention, according to another embodiment.

[0196] FIG. 99B is a flowchart illustrating a method of reducing artifacts in an optical system, according to an embodiment.

[0197] FIG. 100 illustrates reflection of light at the eyepiece in the absence of the reflection prevention element.

[0198] FIG. 101A illustrates blocking of reflections using an artifact prevention element, according to one embodiment.

[0199] FIG. 101B is a flowchart illustrating a method of reducing artifacts in an optical system, according to one embodiment.

[0200] FIG. 102 illustrates blocking of reflections using an alternative geometry artifact prevention element, according to one embodiment.

[0201] FIG. 103 is a schematic diagram of a projector assembly with multiple artifact prevention elements, according to one embodiment.

[0202] FIG. 104A is a schematic diagram illustrating a projector assembly with artifact prevention using color filters, according to one embodiment.

[0203] FIG. 104B is a unfolded schematic diagram illustrating the projector assembly shown in FIG. 104A.

[0204] FIG. 104C is a transmission plot for cyan and magenta color filters, according to one embodiment.

[0205] FIG. 104D is a schematic diagram illustrating spatial arrangement of color filters and sub-pupils, according to one embodiment.

[0206] FIG. 104E is a flowchart illustrating a method of reducing artifacts in an optical system, according to one embodiment.

[0207] FIG. 105 is a schematic diagram illustrating a color filter system, according to one embodiment.

[0208] FIG. 106 is a schematic diagram illustrating a wire bonded LED, according to one embodiment.

[0209] FIG. 107 is a schematic diagram illustrating a flip-chip bonded LED, according to one embodiment.

[0210] FIG. 108 is a schematic diagram illustrating an LED integrated with a parabolic beam expander, according to one embodiment.

[0211] FIG. 109 is a schematic diagram illustrating a single pupil system including a projector assembly and eyepiece, according to one embodiment.

[0212] FIG. 110A-110B show perspective views of an optical device;

[0213] FIG. 110C shows a perspective view of an optics frame of the optical device with multiple electronic components attached thereto;

[0214] FIG. 110D shows a perspective view of a front band and sensor cover of the optical device;

[0215] FIG. 110E shows an exploded perspective view of the optics frame and other associated components;

[0216] FIGS. 111A-111D show how heat is distributed along various components of the optical device;

[0217] FIG. 111E-111G show perspective and side cross-sectional views of a heat dissipation system that utilizes forced convection as opposed to the passive convection illustrated in previous embodiments;

[0218] FIG. 112A shows a cross-sectional view depicting the transfer of heat from a PCB through a conduction layer to a heat-spreading layer;

[0219] FIG. 112B shows a chart listing the material properties of a conduction layer;

[0220] FIGS. 113A-113D show various heat maps overlaid on parts of the optical device;

[0221] FIG. 114A shows a perspective view of an optical device in which only one arm is capable of moving with respect to the frame;

[0222] FIG. 114B shows an overlay illustrating which portions of the optical device deform the most with respect to one another;

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