Magic Leap Patent | Led Thermal Characterization And Calibration For An Optical Display

Patent: Led Thermal Characterization And Calibration For An Optical Display

Publication Number: 20200041349

Publication Date: 20200206

Applicants: Magic Leap

Abstract

Techniques are disclosed for calibrating display devices, such as head-mounted augmented reality (AR) devices. One technique includes obtaining, for each of a set of primary color light sources disposed in a unit, measurement points including chromaticity and luminance values as a function of temperature of the unit and drive currents of the primary color light sources. The technique further includes converting the measurement points to an XYZ color space to produce XYZ values. The technique further includes, for each of a set of target luminances and a set of discrete temperatures, calculating primary luminances for each of the primary color light sources, and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values for each of the primary luminances to obtain calculated currents. The technique further includes storing the calculated currents indexed by the target luminances and the discrete temperatures.

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/714,503, filed Aug. 3, 2018, entitled “LED THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION AND CALIBRATION FOR AN OPTICAL DISPLAY,” the contents of which is herein incorporated in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Modern computing and display technologies have facilitated the development of systems for so called “virtual reality” or “augmented reality” experiences, wherein digitally reproduced images or portions thereof are presented to a user in a manner wherein they seem to be, or may be perceived as, real. A virtual reality, or “VR,” scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information without transparency to other actual real-world visual input; an augmented reality, or “AR,” scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information as an augmentation to visualization of the actual world around the user.

[0003] Despite the progress made in these display technologies, there is a need in the art for improved methods, systems, and devices related to augmented reality systems, particularly, display systems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The present disclosure relates generally to techniques for calibrating display devices. More particularly, embodiments of the present disclosure provide systems and methods for performing a thermal characterization and calibration of one or more light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in an augmented reality (AR) device. Although portions of the present disclosure are described in reference to an AR device, the disclosure is applicable to a variety of applications in image display systems.

[0005] In accordance with a first aspect of the present invention, a method of calibrating a display device including a set of primary color light sources disposed in a unit is provided. The method may include obtaining, for each of the primary color light sources, measurement points including chromaticity and luminance values as a function of temperature of the unit and drive currents of the primary color light sources. The method may also include converting the measurement points to an XYZ color space to produce XYZ values. The method may further include, for each of a set of target luminances and a set of discrete temperatures, calculating primary luminances for each of the primary color light sources and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values for each of the primary luminances to obtain calculated currents. The method may further include storing the calculated currents indexed by the target luminances and the discrete temperatures.

[0006] In some embodiments, the method further includes interpolating or extrapolating the measurement points to provide modified measurement points as a function of the discrete temperatures and the drive currents. In some embodiments, the method further includes, for each of the discrete temperatures, sorting the modified measurement points by the luminance values. In some embodiments, the primary color light sources are LEDs. In some embodiments, the unit comprises a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). In some embodiments, measuring the chromaticity and luminance values comprises receiving light transmitted through an eyepiece of the display device. In some embodiments, calculating the primary luminances and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values are performed over multiple iterations. In some embodiments, the calculated currents are stored in a lookup table.

[0007] In accordance with a second aspect of the present invention, a system for calibrating a display device including a set of primary color light sources disposed in a unit is provided. The system may include one or more processors. The system may also include a computer-readable medium comprising instructions that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform operations. The operations may include obtaining, for each of the primary color light sources, measurement points including chromaticity and luminance values as a function of temperature of the unit and drive currents of the primary color light sources. The operations may also include converting the measurement points to an XYZ color space to produce XYZ values. The operations may further include, for each of a set of target luminances and a set of discrete temperatures, calculating primary luminances for each of the primary color light sources and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values for each of the primary luminances to obtain calculated currents. The operations may further include storing the calculated currents indexed by the target luminances and the discrete temperatures.

[0008] In some embodiments, the operations further include interpolating or extrapolating the measurement points to provide modified measurement points as a function of the discrete temperatures and the drive currents. In some embodiments, the operations further include, for each of the discrete temperatures, sorting the modified measurement points by the luminance values. In some embodiments, the primary color light sources are LEDs. In some embodiments, the unit comprises a CPC. In some embodiments, measuring the chromaticity and luminance values comprises receiving light transmitted through an eyepiece of the display device. In some embodiments, calculating the primary luminances and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values are performed over multiple iterations. In some embodiments, the calculated currents are stored in a lookup table.

[0009] In accordance with a third aspect of the present invention, a non-transitory computer-readable medium is provided. The non-transitory computer-readable medium may include instructions that, when executed by one or more processors, cause the one or more processors to perform operations including: obtaining, for each of a set of primary color light sources disposed in a unit of a display device, measurement points including chromaticity and luminance values as a function of temperature of the unit and drive currents of the primary color light sources. The operations may also include converting the measurement points to an XYZ color space to produce XYZ values. The operations may further include, for each of a set of target luminances and a set of discrete temperatures, calculating primary luminances for each of the primary color light sources and interpolating or extrapolating the drive currents and the XYZ values for each of the primary luminances to obtain calculated currents. The operations may further include storing the calculated currents indexed by the target luminances and the discrete temperatures.

[0010] In some embodiments, the operations further include interpolating or extrapolating the measurement points to provide modified measurement points as a function of the discrete temperatures and the drive currents. In some embodiments, the operations further include, for each of the discrete temperatures, sorting the modified measurement points by the luminance values. In some embodiments, the primary color light sources are LEDs.

[0011] Numerous benefits are achieved by way of the present disclosure over conventional techniques. For example, embodiments described herein enable brightness and color matching of displays between depth planes, between eyes, and between units. Embodiments described herein allow color calibration while eliminating the need to improve the accuracy of the color sources themselves by instead characterizing the actual spectral characteristics of the color sources and adjusting the combination amounts of each color based on the characterization. Other benefits of the present disclosure will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic view of a display device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0013] FIG. 2 illustrates a schematic diagram of a spectrometer calibration system for a display device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0014] FIG. 3 illustrates an example characterization of a red LED.

[0015] FIG. 4 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of setting LED currents using a PID controller according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0016] FIG. 5 illustrates an example characterization of a green LED.

[0017] FIG. 6 illustrates an example characterization of a blue LED.

[0018] FIG. 7 illustrates a method for characterizing primary LEDs of an optical system such as a display device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0019] FIGS. 8A-8C illustrate a method of characterizing primary color LEDs of an optical system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0020] FIG. 9 illustrates a operation of a first set of primary LEDs of a display device that have been previously characterized to generate a 2D LUT.

[0021] FIG. 10 illustrates a operation of a second set of primary LEDs of a display device that have been previously characterized to generate a 2D LUT.

[0022] FIG. 11 illustrates a method for calibrating a display device.

[0023] FIG. 12 illustrates a block diagram of a feed forward controller according to an embodiment of the present invention.

[0024] FIG. 13 illustrates a simplified computer system according to an embodiment described herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

[0025] The brightness and color of an optical display being powered by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are highly sensitive to the spectral characteristics of the LEDs themselves. For example, due to both fabrication variability and the inherent limitations of narrow-band LEDs, the spectral characteristics of an LED can deviate significantly from an ideal monochromatic light source. The problem is exacerbated for optical systems, such as an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which include various optical components through which the light is channeled before arriving at the eye of the user. Each component may apply a unique distortion to the light that is difficult to model and/or account for. For displays that generate a particular color point by combining varying amounts of primary colors (e.g., red, green, and blue), the accuracy of the color point can be improved by (1) improving the accuracy of the primary colors themselves or by (2) characterizing the actual spectral characteristics of the color sources and adjusting the combination amounts of each color based on the characterization. Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the latter approach.

[0026] Embodiments of the present invention improve the brightness and color of optical displays by first characterizing the temperature and current dependence of each source LED and second adjusting the way the display receives and handles the emitted light from the source LEDs based on the characterization. These two steps may collectively be referred to as a “thermal calibration” or a “color calibration” of the optical display. The characterization step may occur during or after fabrication, e.g., while the device is still in the factory, by positioning a light detection device (e.g., a spectrometer) at a distance from the eyepiece where the user’s eye would receive the light when the device is in use. The light detection device sequentially detects each source LED’s output through the optical device as a controller (e.g., feed forward controller) iterates through a plurality of temperatures and currents. The outputs are analyzed to extract chromaticity and luminance data which are used to characterize each source LED. When the device is in actual use by the user, the calibration step is performed by measuring a temperature and adjusting the LED current and the color computation algorithm based on the characterization data as informed by the measured temperature.

[0027] FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic view of a display device 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. Display device 100 may be any number of optical systems or display devices, such as head-mounted displays including augmented reality (AR) devices, virtual reality (VR) devices, and the like. Display device 100 may include a left eyepiece 102A and a right eyepiece 102B each containing multiple waveguides 103 arranged in a side-by-side configuration forming an optical stack. Each of waveguides 103 receives light from a particular source LED that is spatially modulated by a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) projector 104. For example, referring to the right eyepiece 102B, the waveguide corresponding to red and depth plane 1 (i.e., waveguide R1) may receive light from the LED within a LED unit 106B corresponding to red and depth plane 1 (i.e., LED-R1) after the light is spatially modulated by LCoS projector 104B. Similarly, as another example, the waveguide corresponding to blue and depth plane 2 (i.e., waveguide B2) may receive light from the LED within LED unit 106B corresponding to blue and depth plane 2 (i.e., LED-B2) after the light is spatially modulated by LCoS projector 104B. The disclosure is applicable to any number of optical systems or displays. Accordingly, LCoS projectors 104 may be configured so as to channel the separate light inputs to the separate waveguides of eyepieces 102 without combining or mixing the light signals. Although FIG. 1 is described in reference to LCoS projectors 104, other types of spatial light modulators may be used.

[0028] In some embodiments, display device 100 includes a controller 108 for sending display instructions to LCoS projectors 104 and supplying drive current(s) 110 to the source LEDs. The display instructions may indicate which source LEDs are to be modulated and the modulation settings. In some embodiments, LCoS projectors 104 may sequentially modulate the light from different source LEDs (i.e., one at a time in a manner consistent with a field sequential display) or in some embodiments the light from multiple source LEDs may be modulated simultaneously. Controller 108 may also supply drive current(s) 110 to one or more of the source LEDs in coordination with the display instructions. In some embodiments, the display instructions and drive current(s) 110 may be influenced by temperatures 112 measured using thermistors coupled to LED units 106. Temperatures 112 may correspond to a temperature of LED units 106 which may be used as an approximation of the temperatures of the source LEDs. Temperatures 112B may be measured at predetermined intervals or in response to satisfaction of one or more criteria. For example, controller 108 may retrieve temperatures 112 each time a new display instruction is sent to LCoS projectors 104 and/or each time a user requests a recalibration of display device 100. Although FIG. 1A is described in reference to thermistors, other types of temperature sensors may be used.

[0029] In some embodiments, each of LED units 106 may comprise a thermal conductor coupled to each of the LEDs contained in the particular unit such that heating occurring at one LED may influence the temperature of other LEDs that are part of the same LED unit. Each of LED units 106 may include six LEDs (as illustrated in FIG. 1A), or some embodiments, each of LED units 106 may include three LEDs corresponding to primary colors of a particular depth plane. In some embodiments, multiple temperature sensors may be coupled to LED units 106 so as to better approximate the actual temperature of a particular LED. In some embodiments, each of LED units 106 may comprise one or more optical concentrators to collimate and/or modify the light emitted by the LEDs, for example, a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC).

[0030] FIG. 2 illustrates a schematic diagram of a spectrometer calibration system 200 for display device 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 2, display device 100 is positioned such that light emitted from waveguides 103 of eyepieces 102 are captured by collimating lenses 216 or other suitable optical coupling devices. As illustrated in FIG. 2, at least a portion of the light from each waveguide is captured and can be collimated for delivery to a characterization fiber 218. Characterization fibers 218 are optically coupled to spectrometers 214 that are utilized to characterize the spectral properties of the light emitted from the waveguides as described more fully herein. A calibration computer 202 may be utilized to control spectrometer calibration system 200.

[0031] During calibration, calibration computer 202 may instruct display device 100 to generate a virtual image that is displayed by display device 100. The term virtual image includes the display of a uniform screen of light associated with one of the primary colors, that is, a red screen, a green screen, or a blue screen. As an example, calibration computer 202 can control display device 100 to display light from a red LED. In this example, controller 108 may communicate with the red LED to generate an output. In some instances, the SLM drive electronics can be used to set the SLM in the projector to provide a constant reflection (e.g., maximum reflection) across the SLM in the projector. As a result, the light generated by the red LED will couple into and be emitted by waveguide 103, be collected by collimating lens 216, and be coupled into spectrometer 214 through fiber 218. Both the right and left red LEDs can be characterized either concurrently (e.g., simultaneously) or sequentially. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

[0032] In addition to using the LEDs in display device 100 to generate light that will enable spectral characterization of the LEDs, the LEDs can be utilized to generate heat in LED units 106, enabling characterization of the LEDS as a function of both drive current and CPC temperature. Additional description related to temperature control of LED units 106 is provided herein.

[0033] As described herein, embodiments of the present invention enable the spectral characterization of the LEDS in display device 100 in an assembled state of the wearable. Although the spectral characteristics of the LEDs in the LED package can provide insight into the LED characteristics in a discrete package, this characterization does not take into account optical impacts of incorporating the LEDs into the assembled wearable. For example, optical filters disposed along the optical path between the LEDs and the waveguide can absorb predetermined portions of the light emitted by the LEDS. As a result, the portions of the spectrum absorbed by the spectral filter will result in the spectral characteristics of the light emitted by the waveguides differing from the spectral characteristics of the light as emitted from the LED package. Moreover, the spectral throughput properties of the elements of the eyepiece, including the waveguide, can modify the spectral characteristics of the light after emission from the LED package. Accordingly, because the spectrometers receive light emitted by the assembled wearable, the spectral characterization of the LEDs includes the optical throughput properties of the various optical elements in the assembled wearable, not the spectral characteristics of the LED package before integration into the assembled wearable.

[0034] FIG. 3 illustrates an example characterization of LED-R1. In some embodiments, a light detection device (e.g., spectrometer 214) is positioned at a particular distance from eyepiece 102B at a position that is approximately where the user’s eye (also referred to as a viewer’s eye) would receive the light when the device is in use. Spectrometer 214 may receive light through a collimating lens 216 that receives the light emitted by Display device 100 and a fiber 218 that directs the received light to spectrometer 214. In some embodiments, spectrometer 214 may be configured to measure the chromaticity and the luminance of the received light (e.g., in the xyY color space). This may be accomplished either by measuring the xyY values directly or by first measuring the light output as a function of wavelength and second analyzing the spectral characteristics of the light output to determine the xyY values.

[0035] Embodiments of the present invention characterize the spectral content of the light sources, e.g., LEDS, after propagation through the full optical stack of the optic device, for example, a wearable AR device. Accordingly, all of the optical characteristics, spectral attenuations, efficiencies, and the like are considered in calibrating the light sources, e.g., LEDs.

[0036] During the characterization of LED-R1, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller 132 causes the current powering LED-R1, i.sub.R of drive current(s) 110B, to iterate through a plurality of discrete currents. The discrete current values may be sent one at a time from the PID controller 132 to an LED current controller 122. LED current controller 122 may gradually ramp up or down current i.sub.R toward the particular target current or may, in some embodiments, immediately set current i.sub.R to the target current. In addition to current control of current i.sub.R, LED current controller 122 may also provide one or more additional currents to the other illustrated LEDs that, as described more fully below, can cause temperature 112 of LED unit 106 to vary across a range of temperatures. Temperature control of the LED Unit can thus be achieved by controlling the currents of the non-characterized LEDs. For example, LED current controller 122, working in conjunction with PID controller 132, may increase or decrease the current values for currents i.sub.G and i.sub.B so as to increase or decrease temperature 112 of LED unit 106. As an example, as temperature 112 is fed back into PID controller 132, a comparison can be made between the previous temperature and the current temperature to determine how much each of the currents i.sub.G and i.sub.B need to be increased or decreased.

[0037] In order to measure the xyY values of the light output of LED-R1 across a representative range of both current i.sub.R and temperature 112, PID controller 132 may cause temperature 112 to vary while maintaining current i.sub.R constant. Alternatively or additionally, PID controller 132 may cause current i.sub.R to iterate through a plurality of discrete currents while maintaining temperature 112 relatively constant. In some embodiments, PID controller 132 may cause current i.sub.G and temperature 112 to vary concurrently or simultaneously. For example, PID controller 132 may drive current i.sub.G and temperature 112 toward a desired current-temperature pair of a list of current-temperature pairs. PID controller 132 may determine a fastest or most power efficient trajectory to navigate through the list of current-temperature pairs. Other possibilities are contemplated.

[0038] During the characterization of LED-R1, synchronization between spectrometer 214 and processing unit 130 (which is thereby synchronized with PID controller 132 and LED current controller 122) is utilized such that the LCoS projector 104 reflects only light output from LED-R1 for eventual delivery through eyepiece 102. As described below, one or more of the LEDs (e.g., all the LEDs) can be driven at specific current levels to generate the desired LED Unit temperature 112. Once the desired temperature is achieved, the LED being characterized can be operated to illuminate LCoS projector 104 for a predetermined time period.

[0039] Referring to FIG. 3, the target current for the red LED (i.sub.R) and the target temperature of LED unit 106 are defined. The drive currents applied to each of the LEDs in LED unit 106 can be predetermined drive currents (i.e., set drive currents). The target temperatures of LED unit 106 can also be predetermined. Accordingly, as described more fully below, the chromaticity and luminance associated with each of the LEDs can be measured at a range of drive currents and LED unit temperatures.

[0040] For a field sequential display, the light sources (e.g., three of the RGB LEDs illustrated in FIG. 3) are driven sequentially in synchronization with the LCoS projector 104. For example, at 120 Hz, the frame time is .about.8.3 ms. Each LED associated with a depth plane of the eyepiece (e.g., LED-R1, LED-G1, and LED-B1) may be illuminated sequentially for -2.7 ms.

[0041] FIG. 4 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method 400 of setting LED currents using a PID controller according to an embodiment of the present invention. As illustrated in FIG. 4, a target temperature for the LED Unit is received by the PID controller (step 410). Identifying information related to an LED to be characterized and/or calibrated is also received by the PID controller (step 412). As an example, for an LED unit including two sets of LEDs (a first set of R1, G1, B1, and a second set of R2, G2, and B2), information can be received that the red LED of the first set, (i.e., LED-R1) is going to be characterized and/or calibrated. The LED identified for characterization/calibration can be referred to as the identified LED to differentiate this LED from the other LEDs in the LED unit. In addition to the identifying information, the target drive current for the LED to be characterized/calibrated is received (step 414).

[0042] In preparation for measurements related to the LED characterization/calibration, in some embodiments, the drive current for all of LEDs in one of the sets, or optionally, all of the LEDs in both sets, are controlled by the PID controller such that the PID controller adjusts the drive currents, which can include increasing the drive current(s) provided to one of more of the LEDs to a maximum value or reducing the drive currents(s) to zero, to achieve a LED unit temperature within a predetermined range (e.g., +/-0.5.degree. C.) of the target temperature. As described herein, when the LED unit temperature is within the predetermined range of the target temperature, all LEDs other than the identified LED are turned off, the identified LED is driven at the target drive current, and the light output of the identified LED is measured using the spectrometer. During this spectral measurement, the LED unit temperature is measured, the average temperature during the spectral characterization is determined, and the average temperature is recorded, for example, in the same database, for example, the same entry, as the chromaticity and luminance.

[0043] The PID controller communicates with the LED current controller to set the drive current for the identified LED to the target drive current (step 416). In some embodiments, the temperature of the LED unit can be set at the target temperature independent of the characterization/calibration process. Accordingly, steps 412, 414, 416, and 440 are illustrated as optional in FIG. 4. The PID controller receives a temperature of the LED unit using the thermistor (step 418), which can be referred to as a measured temperature, and compares the target temperature to the measured temperature (step 420). If the measured temperature is less than the target temperature, then the heat generated by one or more of the other LEDs in the LED unit will be used to increase the temperature of the LED unit. Accordingly, if the measured temperate is less than the target temperature, then a drive current is determined for an additional LED (step 422). As an example, an initial, low drive current value can be determined for a second LED in the LED unit, for example, LED-G1. This initial drive current value is then provided to the LED current controller so that the additional LED (e.g., LED-G1) is driven at the initial drive current value (step 424). The temperature of the LED unit is measured (step 418) and if the measured temperature is still below the target temperature, then the initial drive current value for the second LED can be increased to a higher value (step 422). This process is repeated until the maximum drive current of the second LED has been reached.

[0044] The iterative process of comparing the measured temperature to the target temperature is repeated by determining drive currents for additional LEDs, for example, LED-B1, and the LEDs from the second set, until the target temperature is reached. In this process, each LED can initially be driven at a low current value that is increased over time to increase the amount of heat generated by the LED. By increasing the drive current in each additional LED and then adding each additional LED, the temperature of the LED unit can be increased in a substantially linear manner until the target temperature is reached.

[0045] As illustrated in FIG. 4, if the measured temperature is greater than the target temperature (step 430), then the drive currents in the additional LED(s) are decreased by the LED current controller (steps 432 and 434) to result in reduced heat generation and decreased LED Unit temperature as a consequence. Thus, if an initial calibration is performed at a first temperature and a second calibration is performed at a second temperature less than the first temperature, the system can decrease the temperature of the LED unit until the second temperature is reached. Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention enable measurement over a range of target temperatures for the LED unit.

[0046] Once the LED unit temperature is equal to the target temperature, the spectral characteristics of the identified LED can be measured (step 440). In some embodiments, all additional LEDs that were used to achieve the desired target temperature can be turned off. Since the thermal mass of the LED unit is non-zero, the LED unit will maintain the target temperature during the short time interval (several milliseconds) associated with the spectral characterization/calibration.

[0047] In some embodiments, the PID controller can include logic that will enable the iterative loop to converge more rapidly toward the target temperature. As an example, if the target temperature is significantly greater than the measured temperature, rather than starting with one additional LED at a low current value, two or more of the additional LEDs can be driven at a current value greater than the initial, low current values to more rapidly increase the temperature of the LED unit. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

[0048] Thus, the temperature of LED unit 106 can be controlled using PID controller 132 in conjunction with the operation of the various LEDs. As described above, in some embodiments, PID controller 132 drives the LEDs across their full current range to implement the desired range of LED unit temperatures.

[0049] It should be appreciated that the specific steps illustrated in FIG. 4 provide a particular method of setting LED currents using a PID controller according to an embodiment of the present invention. Other sequences of steps may also be performed according to alternative embodiments. For example, alternative embodiments of the present invention may perform the steps outlined above in a different order. Moreover, the individual steps illustrated in FIG. 4 may include multiple sub-steps that may be performed in various sequences as appropriate to the individual step. Furthermore, additional steps may be added or removed depending on the particular applications. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

[0050] In order to control the temperature of LED unit 106, one or more of the LEDs in LED unit 106 are driven using drive current to generate heat in the LED unit, thereby increasing or decreasing the temperature of the LED unit in a controllable manner. As an example, during the measurement of the characteristics of red LED (LED-R1), one or more of the other red LED (LED-R2), the green LEDs (LED-G1 and LED-G2) and/or the blue LEDs (LED-B1 and LED-B2) can be operated at given currents to generate a desired amount of heating of LED unit 106. Once the desired temperature for the LED unit is achieved, or a temperature within a threshold of the desired temperature, the drive currents for each of the LEDs being operated, except for the LED being characterized, e.g., red LED (LED-R1), are set to zero and the LED being characterized is operated. Accordingly, only the red LED (LED-R1) will be illuminating LCoS projector 104 during measurement of the spectral properties of the red LED at the desired temperature. The illumination of LCoS projector 104 by the red LED can be maintained for the normal operating time (e.g., .about.2.7 ms) to reproduce the normal operating characteristics. Accordingly, in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 3, each light source is characterized independently while using the other light sources to facilitate control of the optical package containing the light sources.

[0051] Although the various LEDs in LED unit 106 are utilized to enable temperature control in the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 3, this is not required by the present invention and other implementations can be utilized to provide temperature control including a thermoelectric cooler, or the like.

[0052] Referring to FIG. 3, target LED currents may be provided by processing unit 130 to LED current controller 122, which generates LED currents for each of the LEDs associated with each depth plane, for example, two sets of RGB currents (i.sub.R, i.sub.G, and i.sub.B). As described herein, the currents can be generated concurrently and independently. Processing unit 130 may control the characterization process in use as well as the order of characterization steps. Processing unit 130 may provide the target temperature to PID controller 132. Synchronization between spectrometer 214, LED current controller 122, and processing unit 130 is utilized to collect the spectral data in conjunction with the driving of the LEDs by LED current controller 122.

[0053] As illustrated in FIG. 3, the temperature of the thermistor in LED unit 106 is provided to both PID controller 132 and processing unit 130. The temperature provided to PID controller 132 is utilized in the control algorithm used to control the temperature of LED unit 106B. The temperature provided to processing unit 130 is used to record the temperate in conjunction with the spectral measurements at a given LED current.

[0054] Returning to the description of the calibration of the first red LED (LED-R1), the drive current is applied to the LED being characterized (i.e., i.sub.R) and the chromaticity and the luminance (xyY) produced by eyepiece 102 are measured using spectrometer 214. During the measurement by the spectrometer, the temperature of LED unit 106 is also measured, for example, using the thermistor. The measured spectral properties (e.g., xyY) and the measured temperature are recorded by processing unit 130 and/or calibration computer 202. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 3, a database of chromaticity and luminance for each light source can be assembled as a function of LED unit temperature and drive current (i.sub.R).

[0055] FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate characterization of the other two LEDs associated with a depth plane. As discussed in relation to characterization of LED-R1, one or more of the various LEDs are operated in conjunction with PID controller 132 to control the temperature of LED unit 106 in advance of collection of spectral measurements for the LED being characterized. Similar procedures as those discussed in relation to the first depth plane can be utilized to characterize the three LEDs associated with the second depth plane. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

[0056] FIG. 5 illustrates an example characterization of LED-G1. Similar to the characterization of LED-R1, spectrometer 214 is positioned so as to measure the chromaticity and the luminance of the light output by LED-G1 modulated by LCoS projector 104. During the characterization of LED-G1, controller 108 causes the current powering LED-G1, i.sub.G of drive current(s) 110, to iterate through a plurality of discrete currents and for temperature 112 of LED unit 106 to vary across a range of temperatures. Temperature control of the LED Unit can be achieved by controlling the currents of the non-characterized LEDs. For example, LED current controller 122, working in conjunction with PID controller 132 may increase or decrease the current values for currents i.sub.R and i.sub.B so as to increase or decrease temperature 112 of LED unit 106. During the characterization of LED-G1, synchronization between spectrometer 214 and processing unit 130 (which is thereby synchronized with PID controller 132 and LED current controller 122) is utilized such that LCoS projector 104B reflects only light output from LED-G1 for eventual delivery through eyepiece 102. As described herein, one or more of the LEDs (e.g., all the LEDs) can be driven at specific current levels to generate the desired LED Unit temperature. Once the desired temperature is achieved, the LED being characterized can be operated to illuminate LCoS projector 104 for a predetermined time period.

[0057] FIG. 6 illustrates an example characterization of LED-B1. Similar to the characterizations of LED-R1 and LED-G1, spectrometer 214 is positioned so as to measure the chromaticity and the luminance of the light output by LED-B1 modulated by LCoS projector 104. During the characterization of LED-B1, controller 108 causes the current powering LED-B1, i.sub.B of drive current(s) 110, to iterate through a plurality of discrete currents and for temperature 112 of LED unit 106 to vary across a range of temperatures. Temperature control of the LED Unit can be achieved by controlling the currents of the non-characterized LEDs. For example, LED current controller 122, working in conjunction with PID controller 132 may increase or decrease the current values for currents i.sub.R and i.sub.G so as to increase or decrease temperature 112 of LED unit 106. During the characterization of LED-B1, synchronization between spectrometer 214 and processing unit 130 (which is thereby synchronized with PID controller 132 and LED current controller 122) is utilized such that LCoS projector 104 reflects only light output from LED-B1 for eventual delivery through eyepiece 102. As described herein, one or more of the LEDs (e.g., all the LEDs) can be driven at specific current levels to generate the desired LED Unit temperature. Once the desired temperature is achieved, the LED being characterized can be operated to illuminate the LCoS projector 104 for a predetermined time period.

[0058] FIG. 7 illustrates a method 700 for characterizing primary LEDs of an optical system such as display device 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. One or more steps of method 700 may be performed in a different order than that shown in FIG. 7, and not all steps need be performed. In some embodiments, steps 702 to 708 may be performed for each primary color LED. At step 702, xyY values are measured over a range of temperatures and currents to obtain a plurality of measurement points. Each measurement point of the plurality of measurement points includes a current, a temperature, and an xyY value.

[0059] At step 704, the plurality of measurement points are converted from xyY space to XYZ space. At step 706, the XYZ values are interpolated/extrapolated over discrete temperatures to modify the plurality of measurement points. At step 708, the plurality of measurement points are sorted by luminance at each temperature. In some embodiments, steps 710 to 712 may be performed for each target luminance Y.sub.W and for each temperature. At step 710, primary luminances Y.sub.R, Y.sub.G, and Y.sub.B are calculated using the chromaticity values for each primary color LED. As described more fully below in relation to FIG. 8B, for the initial calculation of the primary luminances, the chromaticity values for each of the LEDs measured at the median current can be used. In some embodiments, method 700 is performed with respect to a particular white point (e.g., D65).

[0060] At step 712, the XYZ values and the currents for each primary color are updated (e.g., modified) by interpolating/extrapolating for each primary color target luminance. In some embodiments, steps 702 to 712 are repeated until the XYZ values and/or the currents converge. The resulting currents may be referred to as calculated currents. In other embodiments, or in the same embodiments, steps 710 to 712 are repeated a predetermined number of times. Additional description related to the calibration process illustrated in FIG. 7 is provided in relation to FIGS. 8A-8C. At step 714, the currents (and optionally the XYZ values) calculated during the last iteration of step 712 are stored in a two-dimensional (2D) lookup table (LUT).

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