Magic Leap Patent | Secure Exchange Of Cryptographically Signed Records

Patent: Secure Exchange Of Cryptographically Signed Records

Publication Number: 20200044864

Publication Date: 20200206

Applicants: Magic Leap

Abstract

Systems and methods for securely exchanging cryptographically signed records are disclosed. In one aspect, after receiving a content request, a sender device can send a record to a receiver device (e.g., an agent device) making the request. The record can be sent via a short range link in a decentralized (e.g., peer-to-peer) manner while the devices may not be in communication with a centralized processing platform. The record can comprise a sender signature created using the sender device’s private key. The receiver device can verify the authenticity of the sender signature using the sender device’s public key. After adding a cryptography-based receiver signature, the receiver device can redeem the record with the platform. Upon successful verification of the record, the platform can perform as instructed by a content of the record (e.g., modifying or updating a user account).

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 15/661,990, filed Jul. 27, 2017, titled “SECURE EXCHANGE OF CRYPTOGRAPHICALLY SIGNED RECORDS”, which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/368,408, filed Jul. 29, 2016, entitled “SECURE EXCHANGE OF CRYPTOGRAPHICALLY SIGNED RECORDS”, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

BACKGROUND

Field

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to systems and methods for cryptography and more particularly to securely exchanging cryptographically signed records over computer networks.

Description of the Related Art

[0003] Conventional systems such as digital transmissions are useful for exchanging contents and records over a computer network. Such digital transmissions may replace the need for traditional physical exchanges of records. Parties utilizing such conventional systems need to be connected to a network such as the Internet at the time of the exchange.* These conventional systems require parties to exchanges have continuous access to central data centers for authenticating exchanges*

SUMMARY

[0004] Systems and methods for securely exchanging cryptographically signed records are disclosed. The systems and methods may utilize public key and private key encryption techniques. In one aspect, after receiving a content request, a sender device can send a record to a first receiver device making the request. The record can be sent via a short range link in a decentralized (e.g., peer-to-peer) manner while the devices may not be in communication with a centralized processing platform. The record can comprise a sender signature created using the sender device’s private key. The first receiver device can verify the authenticity of the sender signature using the sender device’s public key. After adding a “for processing only endorsement” and a receiver signature, the first receiver device can redeem the record with the processing platform. Upon successful verification of the sender signature and the receiver signature, the processing platform can perform as instructed by a content of the record.

[0005] In another aspect, the first receiver device can send the record to a second receiver device after adding a first receiver signature to the record. The second receiver device can verify the authenticity of the signatures using the public keys of the sender device and the first receiver device. After adding a “for processing only endorsement” and a second receiver signature, the second receiver device can redeem the record with the processing platform.

[0006] In another aspect, after receiving a content request, a sender device can send a record to an agent device making the request on behalf of a principal. The agent device can verify the authenticity of the sender signature in the record using the sender device’s public key. The agent device can add a “handled by endorsement” to the record before the principal redeems the record with the processing platform.

[0007] In one aspect, a sender device can send a record to a receiver device. The receiver device can validate the received record by detecting a malicious behavior such as sender cloning with a single receiver, mousing, ghosting, sender cloning with multiple receivers, or forking. After detecting a malicious behavior, the receiver device can add a malicious endorsement to the record prior to sending the endorsed record to a processing platform. The processing platform can add the sender device to a blacklist after performing fuzzy ruling or Boolean analysis. In another aspect, the processing platform can validate a record received from a device by detecting a malicious behavior such as receiver cloning or ghosting.

[0008] Embodiments of systems and methods for securely exchanging cryptographically signed records are disclosed. In one aspect, after receiving a content request, a sender device can send a record to a receiver device making the request. The record can be sent via a short range link in a decentralized (e.g., peer-to-peer) manner while the devices may not be in communication with a centralized processing platform. The record can comprise a sender signature created using the sender device’s private key. The receiver device can verify the authenticity of the sender signature using the sender device’s public key. After adding a “for processing only endorsement” and a receiver signature, the receiver device can redeem the record with the processing platform. Upon successful verification of the sender signature and the receiver signature, the processing platform can perform as instructed by a content of the record.

[0009] Embodiments of systems and methods for securely exchanging cryptographically signed records are disclosed. In one aspect, after receiving a content request, a sender device can send a record to an agent device making the request on behalf of a principal. The record can be sent via a short range link in a decentralized (e.g., peer-to-peer) manner while the devices may not be in communication with a centralized processing platform. The record can comprise a sender signature created using the sender device’s private key. The agent device can verify the authenticity of the sender signature using the sender device’s public key. The agent device can add a “handled by endorsement” to the record before the principal redeems the record with the processing platform. Upon successful verification of the sender signature and the receiver signature, the processing platform can perform as instructed by a content of the record.

[0010] Embodiments of systems and methods for securely exchanging chains of cryptographically signed records involving multiple receivers are disclosed. In one aspect, a sender device can send a record to a first receiver device. The record can comprise a sender signature created using the sender device’s private key. The first receiver device can verify the authenticity of the signature using the sender device’s public key. The first receiver device can send the record to a second receiver device after adding a first receiver signature to the record. The second receiver device can verify the authenticity of the signatures using the public keys of the sender device and the first receiver device. After adding a “for processing only endorsement” and a second receiver signature, the second receiver device can redeem the record with the processing platform. Upon successful verification of the signatures, the processing platform can perform as instructed by a content of the record.

[0011] Embodiments of systems and methods for validating cryptographically signed records are disclosed. In one aspect, a sender device can send a record to a receiver device. The receiver device can validate the received record by detecting a malicious behavior such as sender cloning with a single receiver, mousing, ghosting, sender cloning with multiple receivers, or forking. After detecting a malicious behavior, the receiver device can add a malicious endorsement to the record prior to sending the endorsed record to a processing platform. The processing platform can add the sender device to a blacklist after performing fuzzy ruling or Boolean analysis. In another aspect, the processing platform can validate a record received from a device by detecting a malicious behavior such as receiver cloning or ghosting.

[0012] Details of one or more implementations of the subject matter described in this specification are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, aspects, and advantages will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims. Neither this summary nor the following detailed description purports to define or limit the scope of the inventive subject matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] FIGS. 1A and 1B schematically illustrate one embodiment of securely exchanging cryptographically signed contents and records over a wireless network.

[0014] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example user device configured to store public and private cryptographic keys.

[0015] FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example processing platform configured to store public cryptographic keys of user devices.

[0016] FIG. 4 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming an individual record created for one record receiver.

[0017] FIG. 5 schematically illustrates one example of an individual record created for one record receiver.

[0018] FIG. 6 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming individual records created for two record receivers.

[0019] FIG. 7 schematically illustrates example individual records created for two record receivers.

[0020] FIG. 8 schematically illustrates example individual records created for a plurality of record receivers.

[0021] FIG. 9 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming individual records involving an agent and a receiver.

[0022] FIG. 10 schematically illustrates example individual records involving an agent and a record receiver.

[0023] FIG. 11 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming individual records involving query endorsement.

[0024] FIG. 12 schematically illustrates example individual records involving query endorsement.

[0025] FIG. 13 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of distributing common records from a processing platform.

[0026] FIG. 14 schematically illustrates example common records for distribution.

[0027] FIG. 15 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of propagation of common records by a record receiver device.

[0028] FIG. 16 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of propagation of common records by a record sender device.

[0029] FIG. 17 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by sender cloning with multiple receivers.

[0030] FIG. 18 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by sender cloning with a single receiver.

[0031] FIG. 19 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by forking.

[0032] FIG. 20 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by receiver cloning.

[0033] FIG. 21 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by mousing.

[0034] FIG. 22 is an interaction diagram illustrating an example of malicious behavior by ghosting.

[0035] FIG. 23 is a block diagram of an example user device.

[0036] FIG. 24 is a block diagram of an example processing platform.

[0037] FIG. 25 schematically illustrates an example of a standard transaction.

[0038] FIG. 26 schematically illustrates an example of buyer cloning with multiple sellers.

[0039] FIG. 27 schematically illustrates an example of buyer cloning with a single seller.

[0040] FIG. 28 schematically illustrates an example of cheque forking.

[0041] FIG. 29 schematically illustrates an example of seller cloning.

[0042] FIG. 30 schematically illustrates an example of mousing.

[0043] FIG. 31 schematically illustrates an example of ghosting.

[0044] FIG. 32 schematically illustrates an example of a point of sale (PoS) transaction.

[0045] FIG. 33A-33B schematically illustrate one embodiment of securely exchanging cryptographically signed digital cheques. FIG. 33C schematically illustrates another embodiment of securely exchanging cryptographically signed digital cheques.

[0046] FIG. 34A is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming a cryptographically signed digital chequce. FIG. 34B is an interaction diagram illustrating another embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming a cryptographically signed digital chequce

[0047] FIG. 35 schematically illustrates an example of a wearable display system.

[0048] Throughout the drawings, reference numbers may be re-used to indicate correspondence between referenced elements. The drawings are provided to illustrate example embodiments described herein and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Overview

[0049] Systems and methods disclosed herein address various challenges related to digital transmissions and physical exchanges. For example, contents and records can be securely transferred and exchanged over a network using a hybrid system. The hybrid system provides for meaningful or satisfactory centralized and peer-to-peer exchanges of contents or records. Other advantages include ease of use, speed of exchange, capability of verification, security, anonymity, irreversibility, and non-deniability. [0050] The systems and methods disclosed herein may face similar problems that can occur for physical exchanges. Because of the differences in virtual and physical environments, various challenges related to digital transmissions, such as the triviality with which transaction instruments can be copied, are addressed. Features based on digital tools and techniques available on digital platforms are disclosed, for example using digital cryptography, the much more powerful cryptographic analog of the traditional hand written signatures, for endorsements of documents.

Example of Securely Exchanging Cryptographically Signed Records

[0050] FIG. 1A schematically illustrates one embodiment of securely exchanging cryptographically signed contents and records, for example a cryptographically signed individual record 100. A record sender 102a, using a record sender device, can create and send the individual record 100 to a record receiver 102b. The record sender 102a can be a person who wishes to transfer contents or records to the record receiver 102b. The record receiver 102b can be a person who wishes to receive contents or records from the record sender 102a.

[0051] The record receiver 102b, using a record receiver device, can then modify the individual record 100 to create a modified individual record 100m1, where m indicates the individual record 100 has been modified and m1 indicates the first modification of the individual record 100. The record receiver 102b can redeem the modified individual record 100m1 with a service provider 104. After the service provider 104, operating a secure electronic processing platform, successfully processes the individual record 100m1, the service provider 104 can provide the record receiver 102b with, for example, a document as instructed by the modified individual record 100m1. The record sender 102a and the record receiver 102b can exchange the individual record 100 in a distributed or a decentralized (e.g., peer-to-peer) manner.

[0052] For purpose of illustration, the following examples will describe exchange of electronic records between a sender 102a and a receiver 102b. It is to be understood that the sender 102a and the receiver 102b use physical, electronic devices to perform the exchange of the electronic records. For example, the sender and receiver electronic devices may include a cellular telephone, a portable computing device (e.g., laptop, tablet, e-reader), a desktop computing device, an augmented reality device (e.g., a head-mounted augmented, virtual, or mixed reality display), and so forth. It is to be understood that the service provider 104 can use physical, electronic devices to process the exchanged electronic records. For example, the service provider electronic device may include one or more centralized or distributed server computers.

[0053] The record sender 102a, using his user device, can send the individual record 100 directly to the record receiver 102b or directly through another user of the system using a short range link, for example a Bluetooth link, in a peer-to-peer manner, for example. When sending the individual record 100, the user devices of the record sender 102a and the record receiver 102b can be online or offline. For example, both the user devices of the record sender 102a and the record receiver 102b can be online and connected to a network such as the internet. As another example, one or both of the user devices of the record sender 102a and the record receiver 102b can be offline and not connected to a network. The record receiver 102b can redeem the modified individual record 100m1 with the service provider 104 when the user device of the record receiver 102b is in communication with the service provider 104.

[0054] The individual record 100 can be a digital object comprising a plurality of blocks that can be transmitted from the record sender 102a to the record receiver 102b. In some embodiments, the individual record 100 can comprise a block 105a. The block 105a can comprise a number of constituent parts.

[0055] To provide security for the exchange, cryptographic techniques can be used in the electronic record. For example, public key cryptographic techniques can be used in which each party to the transaction (the sender 102a and the receiver 102b) or each device to the transaction (the sender device and the receiver device) is associated with both a public key (that can be disseminated widely) and a private key (that is kept secure and known only to the party). Any sender can encrypt a message to a receiver using the public key of the receiver but the encrypted message can only be decrypted by the receiver, using the receiver’s private key. The receiver of the message can securely reply back to the sender by encrypting a reply message with the senders public key so that only the sender can decrypt the reply message, using the sender’s private key. As will be further described below, the electronic devices of the sender and receiver may include hardware or software that can securely store the respective party’s private key and perform the encryption and decryption using the disseminated public keys. Public key cryptography is an example of asymmetric cryptography in which the key for encryption (e.g., the receiver’s public key) is different from the key for decryption (e.g., the receiver’s private key). In other embodiments, other asymmetric cryptographic techniques can be used.

[0056] For example, the block 105a can comprise a public key 106a of the record sender device in the “from field,” a public key 106b of the record receiver device in the “to field,” a record identifier (ID) 108, a content 110, and a record sender signature 112a of the block 105a. The public key 106a of the record sender device can identify the originator of the individual record 100, the record sender 102a. The public key 106b of the record receiver device can identify the recipient of the individual record 100, the record receiver 102b.

[0057] The record ID 108 can be increasing, for example monotonically increasing, such that two individual records 100 created by the record sender device do not have the same record ID 108. The content 110 can identify, for example, a document that the record receiver 102b can receive when redeeming the modified individual record 100m1 with the service provider 104. The service provider 104 can perform as instructed by the content 100 by itself or indirectly through a third party.

[0058] Users can sign individual records 100 by creating secure, cryptographic signatures of the individual records. The record sender 102a can use his user device to sign the individual record 100 by creating a record sender signature 112a. To sign the individual record 100, the record sender device can require authentication of the record sender 102a. Non-limiting examples of authentication include pas sphrase authentication, biometric authentication such as fingerprint authentication or iris authentication, or biological data authentication. The record sender signature 112a can be a digital signature created using cryptography. For example, the record sender device can use public-key cryptography such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption to encrypt a hash such as secure hash algorithm (SHA)-2 of the individual record 100. For example, any of the SHA-2 hash functions with record digests of 224, 245, 384, or 512 bits can be used (e.g., SHA-256). The record sender signature 112a can be created using the private key of the record sender device public-key cryptography pair. The record sender device can securely store the private key. The record sender signature 112a can be verified by others as authentically signed by the sender 102a, for example by the record receiver 102b, in the possession of the public key 106a of the record sender device. The record receiver 102b can obtain the public key 106a of the record sender device from the individual record 100. Once created, the record sender signature 112a signs the block 105a. The public key 106a of the record sender device, the public key 106b of the record receiver device, the record ID 108, the content 110, and the record sender signature 112a can complete the block 105a of the individual record 100.

[0059] Once in the possession of the record receiver 102b, the record receiver 102b can add an endorsement in an endorsement block 105b to the individual record 100 to create a modified individual record 100m1. For example, an endorsement can be a “for processing only endorsement” 114 that specifies that the modified individual record 100m1 can only be redeemed by the recipient of the individual record in the block 105a, the record receiver 102b. Once an endorsement, for example the “for processing only endorsement” 114 is added, the record receiver 102b can repeat the process of generating a record receiver signature 112b for the endorsement block 105b to create the modified individual record 100. The record receiver signature 112b can be based on one or more parts of the modified individual record 100m1. For example, the record receiver signature 112b can be based on the endorsement block 105b. As another example, the record receiver signature 112b can be based on the block 105a, the endorsement block 105b, or any combination thereof. The modified individual record 100m1 can be electronically communicated to the service provider 104 or to another party’s electronic device.

[0060] Accordingly, an individual record can comprise a chain of blocks, with each block identifying its originator. At each block, the entire prior portion of the chain can be signed by the user handling the blocks at the time. The user can use a private key associated with his user device to sign the entire prior portion of the chain. For example, the modified individual record 100m1 can be a chain comprising two blocks 105a and 105b. The block 105a of the individual record 100 can contain the public key 106a of the record sender device that, together with the public key 106a of the record sender device, can identify the record sender 102a. The record sender signature 112a can be signed by the record sender device using the private key of the record sender device public-key cryptography pair. The endorsement block 105b can contain the record receiver signature 112b that, together with the public key 106b of the record receiver device, can identify the record receiver device. The record receiver signature 112b can be signed by the record receiver device using the private key of the record receiver device public-key cryptography pair. The record receiver signature 112b can be based on the endorsement block 105b, or can be based on the endorsement block 105b, the one or more blocks prior to the endorsement block 105b, for example the block 105a, or any combination thereof.

[0061] An individual record, for example the modified individual record 100m1, with its last block containing a “for processing only endorsement” (FPOE) 114 can be electronically communicated to and redeemed with the service provider 104. On redemption, the service provider 104 can process the modified individual record 100m1 by verifying the authenticity of one or more signatures in the chain of blocks 105a and 105b. For example, the service provider 104 can verify the authenticity of all the signatures in the modified individual record 100m1, including the record sender signature 112a and the record receiver signature 112b. Authenticity of a signature can refer to the signature being created using a particular private key. For example, for the record sender signature 112a to be authentic, the record sender signature 112a can be verified using the record sender device’s public key and determined to have been created using the private key of the record sender device. Thus, the individual record 100, digitally signed by the record sender device, cannot be repudiated by the record sender 102a as long as the record sender 102a claims his private key has remained private.

[0062] If the content 110 comprises an instruction that the record receiver 102b should be given access to, for example, a document with a particular ID and all of the signatures in the chain are verified to be authentic, then the document can be given to the record receiver 102b or the user device of the record receiver 102b at the end point of the chain in the modified individual record 100m1. For example, if the record sender signature 112a and the record receiver signature 112b in the modified original record 100m1 are verified to be authentic, then the service provider 104 can provide the record receiver 102b with, for example, the document as instructed by the content 110. The time at which the record receiver 102b becomes connected to the service provider 104 and redeems the modified individual record 100m1 constitutes a redemption event.

[0063] The content 110 of the record 100 can include, for example, a message, data, instructions to provide a document or other information to an entity, instructions to execute a computer program, contractual obligations or rights (e.g., a smart contract), instructions to transfer consideration (e.g., currency, cryptocurrency, securities, real or intangible assets, etc.), and so forth. An advantage of certain embodiments is that, by utilizing individual records that are not bearer documents, large amounts of consideration can be exchanged without both parties appearing at a central depository.

[0064] In one non-limiting example, the sender 102a is a buyer of an asset from a seller, who is the receiver 102b. The content 110 comprises instructions for the service provider 104 to transfer an amount of cryptocurrency from the account of the sender 102a to the account of the receiver 102b. The sender’s device digitally signs the record 100 using the sender device’s private key and electronically communicates the record 100 to the receiver’s device. The receiver device endorses the record with an endorsement 114 (e.g., in this context, the endorsement may be a “For Deposit Only endorsement”) and digitally signs the record using the receiver device’s private key to create the modified record 100m1. The receiver device communicates the modified record 100m1 to the service provider 104, which redeems the modified record 100m1. The service provider 104 can verify the modified record 100m1 was authentically signed by both the sender 102a and the receiver 102b (using their respective public keys) and can transfer the amount of cryptocurrency (in the content 110) from the sender’s account to the receiver’s account.

[0065] Accordingly, in this non-limiting example, the record functions as a cheque in a digital cheque system and can be used by a buyer (the sender 102a) to pay a seller (the receiver 102b) for the asset. In some such cases, the asset is an electronic asset (e.g., computer code that provides desired functionality for the buyer). The seller (the receiver 102b) can create and digitally sign a record (analogous to the record 100) having the electronic asset as the content and electronically communicate the record to the buyer (the sender 102a). Thus, the buyer and the seller can mutually exchange cryptographically secure records to transfer an asset from the seller to the buyer in return for consideration (e.g., an amount of cryptocurrency). The service provider 104 can act as a clearinghouse for at least some of this exchange (e.g., to debit the buyer’s cryptocurrency account and credit the seller’s cryptocurrency account).

Example System for Exchanging Cryptographically Signed Individual Records

[0066]* Example User Devices*

[0067] The methods and systems for securely exchanging contents and records of the present disclosure can be implemented by one or more user devices and one or more processing platforms. In the non-limiting example system shown in FIG. 1B, users can operate user devices to create, send, receive, modify, or redeem individual records 100. For example, the record sender 102a can operate a record sender device 116a, and the record receiver 102b can operate a record receiver device 116b.

[0068] The user devices, for example the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b, can be identical or can be different. The user devices can include cellular telephones, tablet computers, e-readers, smart watches, head mounted augmented, virtual, or mixed reality display systems, wearable display systems, or computers. The user devices 116a, 116b can comprise embodiments of the wearable display system 3500 described below with reference to FIG. 35. The user device 116a or 116b can be in communication with other devices on a network 118 using a communication link 120a, 120b, for example a cellular communication link. The network 118 can be a local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), or the Internet, accessible by wired or wireless communication links, e.g., implementing the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards.

[0069] When sending the individual record 100, one or both of the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can be offline and not connected to the network 118. The record sender 102a, using the record sender device 116a, can send the individual record 100 to the record receiver 102b using a short range link (SRL) 122. The short range link (SRL) 122 can be a peer-to-peer radio or other links through which the user device 116a or 116b can communicate with one another. The short range link (SRL) 122 can be based on the Infrared Data Association (IrDA)/Infrared Physical Layer Specification (IrPHY), Bluetooth.RTM., Near Field Communication (NFC), ad hoc 802.11, or any other wired or wireless communication methods or systems.

[0070] A processing platform 124, operated by the service provider 104, can be in communication with other devices on the network 118, for example the user devices 116a and 116b, using a communication link 126. The communication link 120a, 120b, or 126 can be wired or wireless communications, cellular communication, Bluetooth.RTM., local area network (LAN), wide local area network (WLAN), radio frequency (RF), infrared (IR), or any other communication methods or systems. Users 102a or 102b can redeem individual records with the processing platform 124. For example, the record receiver 102b, using the record receiver device 116b, can redeem the modified individual record 100m1 with the processing platform 124.

[0071] FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example user device 116 configured to store public and private cryptographic keys. The user device 116 can include an individual records container 202, a secure element (SE) 204, and common records 206. The individual records container 202 can be a digital data structure configured to contain unredeemed individual records 208. For example, the individual records container 202b of the record receiver device 116b can contain the modified individual record 100m1 before the modified individual record 100m1 is electronically communicated to and redeemed with the processing platform 124.

[0072] The secure element (SE) 204 can securely store a private key 210 of the user device and a service provider public key 212. The secure element (SE) 204 can use the private key 212 of the user device to sign individual records 100 and modified individual records 100m1. For example, the secure element (SE) 204a of the record sender device 116a can create the record sender signature 112a of the individual record 100. As another example, the secure element (SE) 204b of the record receiver device 116b can create the record receiver signature 112b of the modified individual record 100m1. In some embodiments, the secure element (SE) 204a of the record sender device 116a can add one or more of the public key 106a of the record sender device, the public key 106b of the record receiver device, the record ID 108, and the content 110 to the individual record 100.

[0073] The secure element (SE) 204 can use the service provider public key 212 to verify the authenticity of information received from the service provider 104. For example, the service provider 104, using the processing platform 124, can send updated public keys of devices 214 to the user device 116a or 116b. The processing platform 124 can sign the public keys of devices 214 with the private key of the service provider public-key cryptography pair. In some embodiments, the service provider private key is the service provider’s exclusive possession. The secure element (SE) 204 can verify the authenticity of the updated public keys of devices 214. Verifying the authenticity of the updated public keys of devices 214 can comprise determining, using the service provider public key 212, whether the signature of the public keys of devices 214 has been created with the service provider public key. In some embodiments, there can be two or more processing platforms 124 operating independently. And a user device 116 can include one or more service provider public keys 212 for the two or more processing platforms 124.

[0074] The common records 206 can include valid user identities and additional information about the users of the service provider processing platform 124. The common records 206 are publicly disseminated and shared among users of the processing platform 124. For example, the common records 206 can include the public keys of user devices 214 which are disseminated by the system so that other users can cryptographically verify digital signatures. The public keys of user devices 214a in the common records 206a of the record sender device 116a and the public keys of user devices 214b in the common records 206b of the record receiver device 116b can be the same or can be different. Referring to FIG. 1B, for the record sender 116a to use a new user device 116a2, the processing platform 104 may have to notify other user devices 116 of the system of the public key of the user device 116’. The processing platform 124 can send an updated common record 206 comprising updated public keys of devices 214, including the public key of the user device 116’, to other user devices 116 when they are connected to the network 118. If the user device 116a is connected to the network 118 and the user device 116b is not, the user device 116a can receive the updated public keys of devices 214a. Thus, the public keys of devices 214b in the common records 206b of the user device 116b can be a subset of the updated public keys of devices 214a in the common records 206a of the user device 116a.

[0075] In some embodiments, some public keys may be no longer in use and can be removed from the public keys of devices 214 by the processing platform 124. For example, if the record sender 102a is no longer using the record sender device 116a, the processing platform 124 can remove the public key 106a of the record sender device from the processing platform’s record. The processing platform 124 can send updated public keys of devices 214, which exclude the public key 106a of the record sender device, to other user devices 116. To maintain cryptographic security, if the record sender device 116a is no longer being used, the device private key 210 should be permanently deleted or the device destroyed.

[0076] User devices can verify the authenticity of received individual records using the public keys of user devices 214. For example, the public keys of user devices 214b in the common records 206b of the record receiver device 116b can include the public key 106a of the record sender device. And the record receiver device 116b can verify the authenticity of the individual record 100 by determining, using the public key 106a of the record sender device, whether the record signature 112a of the individual record 112a has been created using the private key of the record sender device 116a.

[0077]* Example Processing Platform*

[0078] FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example processing platform 124 configured to store public cryptographic keys of user devices. The processing platform 124 can comprise a server or a collection of servers that can be infrastructural to the system. The processing platform 124 can be connected directly to the network 118 and indirectly and possibly only intermittently to the user devices 116 over the network 118. The processing platform 124 can contain and maintain central records 302 to keep track of users, user devices 116, and access to contents identified in the records. The processing platform 124 can process instructions contained in the contents 110 of the records 100. For example, as described above, if the content 110 of a record 100 contains an instruction to transfer cryptocurrency between accounts of users, the platform 124 may perform the transfer upon redemption of the record.

[0079] The processing platform 124 can maintain the common records 206 or can generate the common records 206 from the central records 302. The central records 302 can contain the public keys of devices 214. The public keys of devices 214 in the common records 206 of the user device 116 can be a subset of the public keys of user devices 214 in the central records 302. For example, the public keys of user devices 214 may have been updated, and the user device 116 may not have received the updated public keys of user devices 214.

[0080] The central records 302 can include identifying information and ancillary information of the users 102a or 102b or the user devices 116a or 116b. The central records 302 can include user information 304 that can identify the association of users with user devices. For example, the central records 302 can include the association of the record sender 102a with the two record sender devices 116a and 116a’. In some embodiments, one user with multiple devices can be considered multiple users. In some embodiments, one user with multiple devices can be considered one user. The common records 206 may not contain the user information 304.

[0081] The central records 302 can include user record status 306 for tracking information of the users. For example, the content 110 of the individual record 100 can instruct the processing platform 124 to provide access to the document with its document ID stored in the content 110 to the record receiver 102b. However, the user record status 306 can indicate that only the record sender 102a himself has access to the document; and the record sender 102a cannot grant other users access to the document. As another example, the user record status 306 can indicate that the record sender 102a can give access of the document to other users. As yet another example, the user record status 306 can indicate that the record sender 102a can give access of the document to users only a number of times, such as once; and the user record status 306 can keep track of whether the individual record 100 has been redeemed and accessed by any user, for example the record receiver 102b.

[0082] As a non-limiting example, the user record status 306 can keep track of the record sender’s account balance in, for example, a cryptocurrency. The record sender’s account can be a payer account. If the content 110 of the individual record 100 instructs the processing platform 124 to pay the record receiver 102b an amount less than or equal to the record sender’s account balance, the processing platform 124 can debit the record sender’s account by the specified amount and credit the record receiver’s account by the same amount. The record receiver’s account can be a payee account. If the content 110 of the individual record 100 instructs the processing platform 124 to pay the record receiver 102b an amount greater than the record sender’s account balance, the processing platform 124 can refuse to credit the record receiver’s account by the specified amount. However, the record sender’s account may be debited with an overdraft charge. The common records 206 may not contain the user record status 306.

[0083] The exchange of cryptographically signed individual records disclosed herein can include a number of benefits. The benefits can include, for example, ease of use or speed of exchange. As illustrated in FIG. 1, the record sender device 116a can send the individual record 100 to the record receiver device 116b via the short range link (SRL) 122 without either party being in communication with the service provider 104 through the network 118. Additional or alternative benefits can include, for example, capability of verification or authentication of digital signatures. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the public keys 214 of user devices are disseminated in the common records 206. Thus, the record receiver device 116b can verify the authenticity of the record sender signature 112a in the individual record 100 and the record sender device 116a has sent the individual record 100. Another benefit can be, for example, cryptographic security. As illustrated in FIG. 1A, the record sender device 116a can sign the individual record 100 with the record sender signature 112a, and the record receiver device 116b can sign the modified individual record 100m1 with the record receiver signature 112b. Malicious user devices which are not the record receiver device 116b cannot forge the record receiver signature 112b, because they do not know the record receiver private key. A malicious user device cannot redeem the modified individual record 100m1 with the processing platform 124, because the individual record 100 shows that its recipient is the record receiver device 116b and not the malicious user device. Additional or alternative benefits can include, for example, anonymity (actual legal names need not be used, merely user identifying information associated with the public keys is required), or non-deniability (digital signatures can be authenticated using public keys and the signer cannot deny a signature while also claiming his private key remains private). A further benefit can be, for example, irreversibility. Once the record sender device 116a sends the individual record 100 to the record receiver device 116b, the processing platform 124 can deny a request by the record sender device 116a that the processing platform 124 not to perform as instructed by the content 110 of the individual record 100. Another benefit can be, for example, the individual records 100 can include different contents 110. Furthermore, the record sender 102a can give the record receiver 102b access to a voluminous amount of information, for example documents with IDs stored in the content 110 of the individual records 100, without directly sending the record receiver 102b the information.

Example One Receiver

[0084] In some embodiments, a record receiver can receive an individual record from a record sender. FIG. 4 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming an individual record created for one record receiver. A record receiver 102b, using a record receiver device 116b, can request an individual record 100 from a record sender 102a by sending a content request 402 to a record sender device 116a. The record receiver 102b can send the record sender 102a the content request 402 using a short range link (SRL) 122 at interaction 404. The content request 402 can comprise a content, for example a content B 110b and a public key 106b of the record receiver device. The content B 110b can comprise a request for, for example, a document with its document ID stored in the content B 110b. In some embodiments, the public key 106b of the record receiver device can uniquely identify the record receiver device 116b. In some embodiments, the public key 106b of the record receiver device can uniquely identify the record receiver 102b. The public key 106b can be in the common records which can be stored in the secure element (SE) 204b in some embodiments.

[0085]* Example Partner Identification*

[0086] With reference to FIG. 4, at interaction 408, the record sender device 116a, using its transaction partner identifier, can confirm the identity of the record receiver device 116b by partner identification. Because the content request 402 may have been transmitted electronically to the record sender device 116a, the record sender device 116a may be unsure about the identity of the user device sending the content request 402. Partner identification can be advantageous. For example, with partner identification, the record sender device 116a can distinguish content requests 402 from the record receiver device 116b and from malicious users. As another example, with partner identification, a malicious user cannot receive an individual record not intended for it. As yet another example, with partner identification, a malicious user, even after receiving an individual record not intended for it, cannot redeem the individual record.

[0087]* Example Individual Record Creation*

[0088] FIG. 5 schematically illustrates one example individual record created for one record receiver. As illustrated in FIGS. 4-5, after the secure element (SE) 204a of the record sender device 116a verifies authentication information 512a of the record sender, the secure element (SE) 204a can sign an individual record 100 at interaction 416. Prior to signing the individual record 100 at interaction 416, the secure element (SE) 204a can require both the provision of a block to be digitally signed, for example a block 105a of the individual record 100, and the authentication of the record sender 102a. Non-limiting examples of authentication can include passphrase authentication, biometric authentication such as fingerprint authentication or iris authentication, biological data authentication, or any combination thereof. Biometric authentication can utilize a biometric template based on, for example, fingerprints or eye images. The secure element (SE) 204a can implement a biometric fuzzy vault for recognizing the biometric template.

[0089] The individual record 100 can be a digital object comprising one or more blocks. The individual record 100 can comprise a block 105a, and the block 105a can comprise a public key 106a of the record sender device in the “from field,” a public key 106b of the record receiver device in the “to field,” a record ID 108, a content A 110a, and a record sender signature 112a of the block 105a. The public key 106a of the record sender device can identify the originator of the individual record 100, the record sender device 116a. The public key 106b of the record receiver device can identify the original recipient of the individual record 100, the record receiver device 116b. The content of the content A 110a can vary. The content A 110a and the content B A 110b can be the same, similar, related, or different The content A 110a can be the same as the content B 110b, for example a particular document. The content A 110a can be similar or related to the content B 110b. For example, the content B 110b can request access to a document, and the content A 110a can grant access to the document. As another example, the content B 110b can request access to two documents, and the content A 110a can grant access to only of the two documents. As described above, in the context of cryptocurrency, the content A 110a and the content B 110b can be the same amount of a cryptocurrency. The content A 110a and the content B 110b can be similar or related. For example, the content B 110b can be a pre-tax amount, and the content A 110a can be an after-tax amount. As another example, the content B 110b can be a pre-tip amount, and the content A 110a can be an after-tip amount.

[0090] With reference to FIG. 4, at interaction 420, the record sender 102a can send the individual record 100 to the record receiver 102b, for example, in a peer-to-peer manner using a short range link (SRL). Once in the possession of the record receiver 102b, the record receiver 102b can verify the individual record 100 at interaction 424. Verifying the individual record 100 can comprise authenticating the record sender signature 112a. Authenticating the record sender signature 112a can comprise determining, using the public key 106a of the record sender device, whether the record sender signature 112a has been created using the private key 210 of the record sender device. The public key 106a of the record sender device can be obtained by a number of ways. For example, the public key 106a of the record sender device can be obtained from the individual record 100. As another example, the public key 106a of the record sender device can be obtained from the common records 206 of the record receiver device 116b.

[0091]* Example Individual Record Redemption*

[0092] With reference to FIG. 4, after successfully verifying the individual record 100, the record receiver device 116b can, using its secure element 204b, create and sign the modified individual record 100m1 at interaction 428. Prior to signing the modified individual record 100m1 at interaction 428, the secure element (SE) 204b can require both the provision of a block to be digitally signed, for example a block 105b of the modified individual record 100m1, and authentication information 512b of the record receiver. The modified individual record 100m1 can comprise the block 105a of the individual record 100 and an endorsement block 105b. For example, the endorsement can be a “for processing only endorsement” (FPOE) 114 that, together with the public key 106b of the record receiver, specifies that the modified individual record 100m1 can only be redeemed by the record receiver 102b. As described above, in the context of cryptocurrency, an example of an FPOE endorsement includes a “for deposit only endorsement” (FDOE), in which the processing platform 124 will deposit an amount of cryptocurrency to the account of the record receiver 102b but will not recognize a further endorsement to another party.

[0093] After signing the modified individual record 100m1, the record receiver 102b can redeem the modified individual record 100m1 with the processing platform 124 at interaction 432 when the record receiver 102b is in communication with the processing platform 124 through, for example, the network 118. On redemption, a service provider 104 operating the processing platform 124 can process at interaction 436 the modified individual record 100m1 by verifying the authenticity of one or more signatures in the chain of blocks 105a and 105b in the modified individual record 100m1, for example the record sender signature 112a and the record receiver signature 112b. After successful verification, the processing platform 124 can perform as instructed by the content A 110a of the modified individual record 100m1.

[0094] The sender device 116a can receive an indication that the processing platform 124 has or has not performed as instructed by the content A 110a of the modified individual record 100m1. For example, the processing platform 124 can send the sender device 116a an email stating that the processing platform 124 has performed as instructed by the content A 110a of the modified individual record 100m1. As another example, the processing platform 124 can send the sender device 116a an electronic message stating that the processing platform 124 has not performed as instructed by the content A 110a of the modified individual record 100m1 because the content A 110a instructs the processing platform 124 to provide a document stored in a repository to the record receiver device 116b and repository is temporarily or permanently unavailable. As yet another example, the processing platform 124 can provide the sender device 116a with its user record status 306 periodically, such as hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly. The processing platform 124 can provide the sender device 116a with its user record status 306 when one or more conditions, such as the record sender device 116 can no longer give another user device access to a document, are satisfied.

Example Partner Identification

[0095] Partner identification can be based on various methods. Non-limiting examples of methods for partner identification include content authorization, knocking, physical indication, beam forming, prior arrangement, cursory validation, or any combination thereof.

[0096]* Example Content Authorization*

[0097] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise content authorization. Utilizing content authorization, the record sender 102a can issue an intent to exchange an individual record to the record receiver device 116b based on the public key 106b in the content request 402. The content of the intent to exchange an individual record can vary. For example, the content of the intent to exchange an individual record can be empty or can contain one or more zero values. After the record receiver device 116b receives the intent to exchange an individual record, the record receiver 102b can confirm by non-electronic means that he is the recipient of the intent to exchange an individual record. For example, the record receiver 102b can verbally inform the record sender 102a that he has received the intent to exchange an individual record. As another example, the record receiver 102b can inform the record sender 102a that he has received the intent to exchange an individual record electronically. After confirmation, the content request 402 from the record receiver 102b can be validated, and the record sender 102a can send the record receiver device 116b an individual record 100 with an appropriate content.

[0098]* Example Knocking*

[0099] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise knocking. The record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b each can comprise motion sensors. Utilizing knocking, the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can come into physical contact. Such contact can be measured by the motion sensors of the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b. The relative timing of the contact and of sending and receiving the content request 402 can vary. For example, the record receiver device 116b can send the content request 402 at the time of the contact (e.g., at the time of the “knock”). As another example, the record receiver device 116b can send the content request 402 shortly after the contact (e.g., within a threshold time of 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 1 min, 10 min, etc.). If the content request is not sent within the threshold time, the partner identification may require that the devices be knocked again.

[0100] The record sender device 116a can accept the content request 402 based on the temporal concurrency of the contact and the receipt of the content request 402. In some embodiments, the record receiver device 116b can send to the record sender device 116a a signature of the contact. The signature of the contact can be created using the private key of the record receiver device public-key cryptography pair. The signature of the contact can be based on the contact measured by the motion sensor of the record receiver device 116b and the timing of the contact measured. The signature of the contact can be part of the content request 402 or can be a separate communication from the record receiver device 116b to the record sender device 116a. Because the contact can produce an equal and opposite reaction in the record sender device 116a, the record sender device 116a can verify the signature of the contact.

[0101]* Example Physical Indication*

[0102] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise physical indication. The record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can comprise imaging sensors (e.g., digital cameras). The record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can be oriented so as to “see” each other using their imaging sensors. The record receiver device 116b can send an image of the record sender device 116a it captures to the record sender device 116a. The image can be part of the content request 402 or can be a separate communication from the record receiver device 116b to the record sender device 116a. Because the image of the record sender device 116a and the image of the record receiver device 116b can be opposite of each other, the record sender device 116a can confirm the identity of the record receiver device 116b by qualitative or quantitative comparisons of the images. For example, if the record sender device 116a “sees” the record receiver device 116b to be up and to the left, then the record receiver device 116b should appear to be down and to the right in the image of the record sender device 116a captured by record receiver device 116b.

[0103] In some embodiments, physical indication can be based on the simultaneous observations of the environments of the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b. The record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can comprise microphones. The physical indication can be based on the simultaneous audio recordings of the environments by the microphones of the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b. Both the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can simultaneously “hear” their environments using the microphones. The record receiver device 116b can send an audio recording of its environment it captures and the time of the recording to the record sender device 116a. The audio recording can be part of the content request 402 or can be a separate communication from the record receiver device 116b to the record sender device 116a. Because the sound recording sent by the record receiver device 116b can be the same as or similar to what the record sender device 116a “hears” at the same time, the record sender device 116a can confirm the identity of the record receiver device 116b by qualitative or quantitative comparisons of the sound recording and what it “hears”. As another example, physical indication can be based on the simultaneous audio observations of each other by the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b. As yet another example, physical indication can be based on the simultaneous visual observations of the environments by the record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b.

[0104]* Example Beam Forming*

[0105] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise beam forming. The user device 116 can comprise a short range link (SRL) interface that is directional (e.g., using a beam-forming or directional antenna). The record sender device 116a and the record receiver device 116b can have their short range link (SRL) interfaces pointed at each other. Utilizing beam forming, the record sender device 116a can receive the content request 402 from the record receiver device 116b and not other content requests sent from other directions from, for example, malicious users. Utilizing beam forming, only the record sender device 116a, not other users, can receive the content request 402 from the record receiver device 116b.

[0106]* Example Prior Arrangement*

[0107] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise prior arrangement. For example, the record sender device 116a may have prior knowledge of the public key 106b of the record receiver device prior to receiving the content request 402 from the record receiver device 116b. As another example, the record sender device 116a may have prior knowledge that a record receiver device with the public key 106b will send it a content request, for example the content request 402. For example, the sender 102a may have previously told the receiver 102b that a record is going to be sent. The receiver 102b can utilize a user interface (UI) on the receiver device 116b to provide an indication that the record is expected to come from the sender device 116a (e.g., within a threshold time period).

[0108]* Example Cursory Validation*

[0109] In some embodiments, partner identification can comprise cursory validation. For example, the common records 206 can contain identifying strings, for example BigBoxStore, that can be used for cursory validation of a content request 402. As an example, in which the receiver 102b is a merchant, the record receiver 102b can be identified as the merchant in the common records 206. The identification can be associated with an indication, for example a bit, in the common records 206 that the identity has been validated by the processing platform 124. Such a validated identity can be distinguished from identities assigned or provided by the users themselves.

Example Contents and Exchanges

[0110] The contents 110 of the individual records 100 can vary. For example, the contents 110 can include instructions for providing record receivers 102b with documents having their document IDs stored in the contents 110. As another example, the contents 110 can include instructions for paying the record receivers 102b a certain number of monetary units, for example U.S. Dollars. Payments can be in the form of, e.g., a national currency, a fiat currency, a commodity or a commodity currency, a cryptocurrency, a financial product or security (e.g., stocks or bonds), or any combination thereof.

[0111] The contents 110 of the individual records 100 can contain software code. The processing platform 124 can execute the software code when certain conditions are satisfied. The conditions can be time based, such as the time when the record receiver 102b redeems an individual record 100 containing the software code. The contents 110 can include self-executing software code. The self-executing code can automatically execute when certain conditions are satisfied. In some embodiments, the users can prevent or delay the execution of the software codes, for example, when certain conditions such as fraud are detected. In some embodiments, the users may be unable to prevent or delay the execution of the software codes.

[0112] The contents 110 of the individual records 100 can include contractual obligations or rights between the sender and the receiver (e.g., smart contracts). For example, the record receiver 102b may be under a contractual obligation to perform a service such as backing up the record sender’s computer infrastructure and may have a contractual right to receive payment for the service; and the record sender 102a may be under a contractual obligation to pay the record receiver 102b for the service and may have a contractual right to receive the record receiver’s performance. The smart contracts can be between individual users, partnerships, companies, or corporations. The smart contract can involve recurrent execution of software code. The software code can comprise software code that can be executed when certain conditions are satisfied. As an example, the software code can comprise software code for a backup or security scan of the receiver’s computer infrastructure. The software code might be executed upon the occurrence of a condition (e.g., transfer of a monthly payment of cryptocurrency to the sender). In some embodiments, the smart contracts can involve recurring payments when certain conditions are satisfied. For example, a smart contract may require the record receiver 102b to backup the record sender’s computer infrastructure periodically such as weekly. When the condition of the periodic performance is satisfied, the record sender 102a has a contractual obligation under the smart contract to pay the record receiver 102b periodically.

[0113] The contents 110 can involve escrow. For example, the record sender 102a and the record receiver 102b would like to exchange codes such as software codes. After providing first software codes to a repository, for example the processing platform 124, the record sender 102a can provide the record receiver 102b with a first individual record 100 instructing the repository to provide the record receiver 102b with the first software codes if first conditions are satisfied. Similarly, the original record receiver 102b can provide the original record sender 102a with a second individual record 100m1 instructing the repository to provide the original record sender 102a with second software codes if second conditions are satisfied. The first conditions and the second conditions can be time based. The first conditions and the second conditions can be the same or different.

[0114] In some embodiments, the record sender 102a can provide the record receiver 102b with the individual record 100 as a part of an exchange. For example, the content 110 of the individual record can instruct the processing platform 124 to debit the record sender’s account with a first amount and to credit the record receiver’s account with a second amount. The account debiting and crediting can be accompanied by the record receiver 102b providing the record sender 102a with, for example, a product or some codes.

Example Two Receivers

[0115]* Example First Content Request*

[0116] In some embodiments, after receiving an individual record from a record sender, a record receiver can send the received individual record to a subsequent record receiver. FIG. 6 is an interaction diagram illustrating one embodiment of securely exchanging and redeeming individual records created for two record receivers. As illustrated in FIGS. 4-5, a first record receiver 102b, using a first record receiver device 116b, can request an individual record from a first record sender 102a by sending a first content request 402, to a first record sender device 116a at interaction 404. The first content request 402 can comprise a content B 110b and a first public key 106b of the first record receiver device.

[0117] At interaction 408, the first record sender device 116a can confirm the identity of the first record receiver device 116b by partner identification. After the secure element (SE) 204a of the first record sender device 116a verifies authentication information 512a of the first record sender, the secure element (SE) 204a can sign an individual record 100 at interaction 416.

[0118] FIG. 7 schematically illustrates example individual records created for two record receivers. As illustrated in FIGS. 6-7, the individual record 100 can be a digital object comprising a block 105a. The block 105a can comprise a first public key 106a of the first record sender device in the “from field,” a first public key 106b of the first record receiver device in the “to field,” a record ID 108, a content A 110a, and a first record sender signature 112a of the block 105a.

[0119] At interaction 420, the first record sender 102a can send the individual record 100 to the first record receiver 102b in, for example, a peer-to-peer manner using a short range link (SRL) 122. Once in the possession of the first record receiver 102b, the first record receiver 102b can verify the individual record 100 at interaction 424.

[0120]* Example Second Content Request*

[0121] With reference to FIG. 6, a second record receiver, using a record receiver device, can request an individual record from a record sender by sending a content request to a record sender device using a short range link (SRL) 122 at interaction 604. For example, a second record receiver 102c, using a second record receiver device 116c, can request an individual record from the first record receiver 102b by sending a second content request 602 to the first record receiver device 116b. The first record receiver 102b can be a second record sender, and the first record receiver device 116b can be referred to as a second record sender device. The second content request 602 can comprise a content, for example a content C 110c and a public key 106c of the second record receiver device.

[0122] At interaction 608, the second record sender device 116b can confirm the identity of the second record receiver device 116c by partner identification. After the secure element (SE) 204b of the second record sender device/first record receiver device 116b verifies authentication information 512b of the second record sender, the second record sender device 116b can decide to send the first modified record 100m1, after signing it, to the second record receiver device 116c for a variety of reasons and purposes. For example, the second record receiver 102c can be an assignee of the second record sender 102b. Instead of the processing platform 124 performing for the first record receiver/second record sender 102b as instructed by the content A 110a, the processing platform 124 can perform for the second record receiver 102c. The content A 110a, the content B 110b, and the content C 110c can be the same, similar, related, or different.

[0123] The secure element (SE) 204b can sign the first modified individual record 100m1 at interaction 612. Signing the first modified individual record 100m1 can comprise adding a block, for example a block 105b, to the individual record 100 to create a first modified individual record 100m1. The block 105b of the first modified individual record 100m1 can comprise a second public key 106c of the second record receiver device and a second record sender signature/first record receiver signature 112b of the block 105b.

[0124] At interaction 616, the second record sender 102b can send the first modified individual record 100m1 to the second record receiver 102c, e.g., in a peer-to-peer manner using a short range link (SRL) 122. Once in the possession of the second record receiver 102c, the second record receiver 102c can verify the first modified individual record 100m1 at interaction 620. Verifying the first modified individual record 100m1 can comprise authenticating the first record sender signature 112a and the second record sender signature 112b using, for example, the public key 106a of the first record sender device and the public key 106b of the second record sender device in the first modified individual record 100m1.

[0125]* Example Individual Record Redemption*

[0126] With reference to FIG. 6, after successfully verifying the first modified individual record 100m1, the second record receiver device 116c can, using its secure element (SE) 204c, create and sign a second modified individual record 100m2 at interaction 624, where m indicates the individual record 100 has been modified and m2 indicates the individual record 100 has been modified at least twice. Prior to signing the second modified individual record 100m2, the secure element (SE) 204c can require both the provision of a block to be digitally signed, for example a block 105c of the second modified individual record 100m2, and authentication information 512c of the second record receiver. The second modified individual record 100m2 can comprise the block 105a of the individual record 100, the block 105b of the first modified individual record, and an endorsement block 105c. For example, the endorsement can be a “for processing only endorsement” (FPOE) 114 that, together with the public key 106c of the record receiver device, specifies that the second modified individual record 100m2 can only be redeemed by the second record receiver 102c.

[0127] After signing the second modified individual record 100m2, the second record receiver 102c can redeem the second modified individual record 100m2 with the processing platform 124 at interaction 628. On redemption, a service provider 104 operating the processing platform 124 can process at interaction 632 the second modified individual record 100m2 by verifying the authenticity of one or more signatures in the chain of blocks 105a, 105b, and 105c in the second modified individual record 100m2. Signatures verified can include the first record sender signature 112a, the second record sender signature/first record receiver signature 112b, and second record receiver signature 112c. After successful verification, the processing platform 124 can perform as instructed by the content A 110a of the second modified individual record 100m1.

Example N Receivers

[0128] In some embodiments, after receiving an individual record from a record sender, a record receiver can send the received individual record to a subsequent record receiver. The subsequent record receiver can in turn send the individual record it has received to another record receiver. A last record receiver can redeem the individual record it has received with a processing platform. The number N of senders/receivers in the chain of records can be 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 20, 100, or more.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注