Magic Leap Patent | Methods And Apparatuses For Determining And/Or Evaluating Localizing Maps Of Image Display Devices

Patent: Methods And Apparatuses For Determining And/Or Evaluating Localizing Maps Of Image Display Devices

Publication Number: 20200034624

Publication Date: 20200130

Applicants: Magic Leap

Abstract

An apparatus configured to be worn on a head of a user, includes: a screen configured to present graphics to the user; a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located; and a processing unit configured to determine a map based at least in part on output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; wherein the processing unit of the apparatus is also configured to obtain a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map, and wherein the processing unit is configured to obtain the metric by computing the metric or by receiving the metric.

RELATED APPLICATION DATA

[0001] This application claims priority to, and the benefit of, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/702,829 filed on Jul. 24, 2018, pending. The entire disclosure of the above application is expressly incorporated by reference herein.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0002] The following applications are expressly incorporated by reference in their entireties:

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/205,126 filed on Mar. 11, 2014, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/690,401 filed on Apr. 18, 2015, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/704,765 filed on May 5, 2015.

FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure relates to image display devices configured to be worn on users’ heads, and methods and apparatus for determining and evaluating localizing maps for such image display devices.

BACKGROUND

[0004] Modern computing and display technologies have facilitated the development of “mixed reality” (MR) systems for so called “virtual reality” (VR) or “augmented reality” (AR) experiences, wherein digitally reproduced images or portions thereof are presented to a user in a manner wherein they seem to be, or may be perceived as, real. A VR scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information without transparency to actual real-world visual input. An AR scenario typically involves presentation of digital or virtual image information as an augmentation to visualization of the real world around the user (i.e., transparency to real-world visual input). Accordingly, AR scenarios involve presentation of digital or virtual image information with transparency to the real-world visual input.

[0005] MR systems may generate and display color data, which increases the realism of MR scenarios. Many of these MR systems display color data by sequentially projecting sub-images in different (e.g., primary) colors or “fields” (e.g., Red, Green, and Blue) corresponding to a color image in rapid succession. Projecting color sub-images at sufficiently high rates (e.g., 60 Hz, 120 Hz, etc.) may deliver a smooth color MR scenario in a user’s mind.

[0006] Various optical systems generate images, including color images, at various depths for displaying MR (VR and AR) scenarios. Some such optical systems are described in U.S. Utility patent application Ser. No. 14/555,585 filed on Nov. 27, 2014 (attorney docket number ML.20011.00), the contents of which are hereby expressly and fully incorporated by reference in their entirety, as though set forth in full.

[0007] MR systems may employ wearable display devices (e.g., displays configured to be worn on heads, helmet-mounted displays, or smart glasses) that are at least loosely coupled to a user’s head, and thus move when the user’s head moves. If the user’s head motions are detected by the display device, the data being displayed can be updated (e.g., “warped”) to take the change in head pose (i.e., the orientation and/or location of user’s head) into account.

[0008] As an example, if a user wearing a display device views a virtual representation of a virtual object on the display and walks around an area where the virtual object appears, the virtual object can be rendered for each viewpoint, giving the user the perception that they are walking around an object that occupies real space. If the display device is used to present multiple virtual objects, measurements of head pose can be used to render the scene to match the user’s dynamically changing head pose and provide an increased sense of immersion.

[0009] Display devices (configured to be worn on users’ heads) that enable AR provide concurrent viewing of both real and virtual objects. With an “optical see-through” display, a user can see through transparent (or semi-transparent) elements in a display system to view directly the light from real objects in an environment. The transparent element, often referred to as a “combiner,” superimposes light from the display over the user’s view of the real world, where light from by the display projects an image of virtual content over the see-through view of the real objects in the environment. A camera may be mounted onto the display device to capture images or videos of the scene being viewed by the user.

[0010] Current optical systems, such as those in MR systems, optically render virtual content. Content is “virtual” in that it does not correspond to real physical objects located in respective positions in space. Instead, virtual content only exist in the brains (e.g., the optical centers) of a user of the display device when stimulated by light beams directed to the eyes of the user.

[0011] In some cases, an image display device configured to be worn on a user’s head may display virtual objects with respect to a real environment, and/or may allow a user to place and/or manipulate virtual objects with respect to the real environment. In such cases, the image display device may be configured to localize the user with respect to the real environment, so that virtual objects may be correctly displaced with respect to the real environment. Methods and apparatuses for determining and/or evaluating localizing maps of image display devices (e.g., MR devices, AR devices, VR devices, etc.) are disclosed herein. The localizing maps are configured for use by the image display devices for localization of users.

SUMMARY

[0012] An apparatus configured to be worn on a head of a user, includes: a screen configured to present graphics to the user; a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located; and a processing unit configured to determine a map based at least in part on output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; wherein the processing unit of the apparatus is also configured to determine a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map.

[0013] Optionally, the processing unit may be configured to determine the metric by computing the metric.

[0014] Optionally, the processing unit may be configured to determine the metric by receiving the metric.

[0015] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric based on a co-visibility of a point of interest that is associated with different camera positions.

[0016] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of the camera of the camera system.

[0017] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a first camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of a second camera position of the camera system.

[0018] Optionally, the metric indicates a number of reference points that are useable to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0019] Optionally, the metric indicates the likelihood of success to localize the user in one or more viewing directions.

[0020] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric based on a number of times a point of interest is detected from different camera positions.

[0021] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric without determining any convex hull.

[0022] Optionally, the metric has a value that is based on directionality.

[0023] Optionally, the directionality is with respect to one or more vertical axes, and/or one or more horizontal axes.

[0024] Optionally, the directionality comprises a turn direction.

[0025] Optionally, the directionality comprises a tilt angle.

[0026] Optionally, the directionality comprises a roll angle.

[0027] Optionally, the metric has a first value associated with a first directionality, and a second value associated with a second directionality.

[0028] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, and wherein the metric has a value that is based on a position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0029] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, wherein the metric has a first value associated with a first position within the one of the plurality of cells, and a second value associated with a second position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0030] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, and each of the cells represents a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment.

[0031] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine a total number of images from the camera system for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0032] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with a certain viewing direction for the cell.

[0033] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with multiple viewing directions for the cell.

[0034] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain multiple images, and wherein the processing unit is configured to determine the metric for one of the plurality of cells by: identifying a subset of the images that belong to a same range of viewing directions; determining respective scores for the images in the subset of the images; and summing the scores to obtain a total score.

[0035] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine an average score by dividing the total score by a number of the images in the subset of the images.

[0036] Optionally, the average score is the metric.

[0037] Optionally, the average score represents an average expected number of co-visibility points for the range of viewing directions for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0038] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the respective scores by accessing a co-visibility graph that associates reference points with the multiple images.

[0039] Optionally, the co-visibility graph indicates which of the reference points is visible in which of the multiple images.

[0040] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine each of the respective scores by determining a number of reference point(s) that is detected in the corresponding one of the images in the subset of images.

[0041] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine an area score indicating a degree of coverage by the map.

[0042] Optionally, the area score is based on a spatial distribution of data points of the map.

[0043] Optionally, at least one of the cells has a footprint area that is 2 m by 2 m.

[0044] Optionally, the at least one of the cells also has a pre-determined height.

[0045] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric by: obtaining a plurality of images from the camera system; and determining co-visibility values, wherein each of the co-visibility values indicating a number of reference points detected in a corresponding one of the plurality of images.

[0046] Optionally, the camera system comprises a plurality of cameras.

[0047] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a first subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a first position.

[0048] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a second subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a second position.

[0049] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first forward facing camera.

[0050] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second forward facing camera.

[0051] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first side facing camera.

[0052] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second side facing camera.

[0053] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine a desired viewing direction of the camera system for improving a value of the metric.

[0054] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to generate the graphics based on the determined desired viewing direction, the graphics configured to instruct the user to change a current viewing direction of the camera system to the desired viewing direction.

[0055] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain an image of the environment after the desired viewing direction of the camera system has been achieved.

[0056] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to update the map based on the image.

[0057] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to update the metric based on the updated map.

[0058] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric before using the map to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0059] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric before allowing the apparatus to share content with another apparatus.

[0060] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric during a map construction session in which the processing unit determines the map.

[0061] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric retroactively by accessing the map that was previously determined from a non-transitory medium.

[0062] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform a sanitization to remove or to disregard data that would otherwise provide an undesirable contribution for the map if the data is used to determine the map.

[0063] Optionally, the data comprises an image from the camera system, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by removing or disregarding the image.

[0064] Optionally, camera system comprises a plurality of cameras, wherein the data comprises a set of images generated by the respective cameras, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by removing or disregarding the set of images.

[0065] Optionally, the data comprises an identification of a reference point in an image from the camera system, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by disregarding the identification of the reference point.

[0066] Optionally, the data represents a ray or a line that is associated with an image from the camera system and a reference point, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by disregarding the ray or the line that is associated with the image.

[0067] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization as a part of a local optimization.

[0068] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform a bundle adjustment to adjust one or more rays associated with one or more images from the camera system, wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the bundle adjustment after performing the sanitization to remove the data.

[0069] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the bundle adjustment as a part of a global optimization.

[0070] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the global optimization based on images from the camera system and three-dimensional reference points,

[0071] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the global optimization also based on a relative orientation between cameras of the camera system.

[0072] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine a score for an image obtained from the camera system.

[0073] Optionally, the score is a constraint score.

[0074] Optionally, the score indicates how well the image is constrained.

[0075] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on a Jacobian of reference points measurements.

[0076] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on an information matrix that is a diagonal matrix.

[0077] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on a number of reference points detected in the image.

[0078] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform data sanitization based on the score.

[0079] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to remove a constraint of the image, or to remove the image, when performing the data sanitization.

[0080] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to remove the constraint of the image, or to remove the image, when the score is below a threshold.

[0081] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the map by: determining multiple map segments; and connecting the map segments.

[0082] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine a first map segment of the map segments by obtaining images from the camera system, and linking the images, wherein the images are generated in sequence by the camera system.

[0083] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine respective scores of the images.

[0084] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to: obtain an additional image from the camera system, determine a score for the additional image, and start a second map segment of the map segments in response to the score of the additional image from the camera system meeting a criterion.

[0085] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to start the second map segment when the score indicates that the image has a degree of constraint with respect to the first map segment that is below a threshold.

[0086] Optionally, the output(s) comprises one or more images from the camera system.

[0087] An apparatus configured to be worn on a head of a user, includes: a screen configured to present graphics to the user; a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located; and a processing unit configured to determine a map based at least in part on output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; wherein the processing unit of the apparatus is also configured to obtain a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map, and wherein the processing unit is configured to obtain the metric by computing the metric or by receiving the metric.

[0088] An apparatus configured to be worn on a head of a user, includes: a screen configured to present graphics to the user; a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located; and a processing unit configured to determine a map based at least in part on output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; wherein the processing unit is configured to determine a score for an image obtained from the camera system, the score indicating how well the image is constrained with respect to a map segment for forming the map.

[0089] Optionally, the processing unit may be configured to determine the score by computing the score.

[0090] Optionally, the processing unit may be configured to determine the score by receiving the score.

[0091] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on a Jacobian of reference points measurements.

[0092] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on an information matrix that is a diagonal matrix.

[0093] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the score based on a number of reference points detected in the image.

[0094] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform data sanitization based on the score.

[0095] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to remove a constraint of the image, or to remove the image, when performing the data sanitization.

[0096] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to remove the constraint of the image, or to remove the image, when the score is below a threshold.

[0097] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform a sanitization to remove or to disregard data that would otherwise provide an undesirable contribution for the map if the data is used to determine the map.

[0098] Optionally, the data comprises the image from the camera system, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by removing or disregarding the image.

[0099] Optionally, the camera system comprises a plurality of cameras, wherein the data comprises a set of images generated by the respective cameras, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by removing or disregarding the set of images.

[0100] Optionally, the data comprises an identification of a reference point in the image from the camera system, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by disregarding the identification of the reference point.

[0101] Optionally, the data represents a ray or a line that is associated with the image from the camera system and a reference point, and wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization by disregarding the ray or the line that is associated with the image.

[0102] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the sanitization as a part of a local optimization.

[0103] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform a bundle adjustment to adjust one or more rays associated with one or more images from the camera system, wherein the processing unit is configured to perform the bundle adjustment after performing the sanitization, wherein the image for which the score is determined is one of the one or more images, or is different from the one or more images.

[0104] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the bundle adjustment as a part of a global optimization.

[0105] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the global optimization based on the one or more images from the camera system and three-dimensional reference points,

[0106] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to perform the global optimization also based on a relative orientation between cameras of the camera system.

[0107] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the map by: determining multiple map segments, wherein the multiple map segment comprise the map segment; and connecting the map segments; wherein the portion of the map comprises one of the map segments.

[0108] Optionally, the camera system is configured to provide additional images, the additional images generated by the camera system before the image for which the score is determined is generated, wherein the processing unit is configured to determine a first map segment of the map segments by linking the additional images, and wherein the additional images are generated in sequence by the camera system.

[0109] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine respective scores of the additional images.

[0110] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to start a second map segment of the map segments in response to the score of the image from the camera system meeting a criterion.

[0111] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to start the second map segment when the score indicates that the image has a degree of constraint with respect to the first map segment that is below a threshold.

[0112] Optionally, the processing unit of the apparatus is also configured to determine a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map.

[0113] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric based on a co-visibility of a point of interest that is associated with different camera positions.

[0114] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of the camera of the camera system.

[0115] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a first camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of a second camera position of the camera system.

[0116] Optionally, the metric indicates a number of reference points that are useable to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0117] Optionally, the metric indicates the likelihood of success to localize the user in one or more viewing directions.

[0118] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric based on a number of times a point of interest is detected from different camera positions.

[0119] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric without determining any convex hull.

[0120] Optionally, the metric has a value that is based on directionality.

[0121] Optionally, the directionality is with respect to one or more vertical axes, and/or one or more horizontal axes.

[0122] Optionally, the directionality comprises a turn direction.

[0123] Optionally, the directionality comprises a tilt angle.

[0124] Optionally, the directionality comprises a roll angle.

[0125] Optionally, the metric has a first value associated with a first directionality, and a second value associated with a second directionality.

[0126] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, and wherein the metric has a value that is based on a position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0127] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, wherein the metric has a first value associated with a first position within the one of the plurality of cells, and a second value associated with a second position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0128] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, and each of the cells represents a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment.

[0129] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine a total number of images from the camera system for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0130] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with a certain viewing direction for the cell.

[0131] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with multiple viewing directions for the cell.

[0132] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain multiple images, the multiple images including the image for which the score is determined, and wherein the processing unit is configured to determine the metric for one of the plurality of cells by: identifying a subset of the images that belong to a same range of viewing directions; determining respective scores for the images in the subset of the images; and summing the scores to obtain a total score.

[0133] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine an average score by dividing the total score by a number of the images in the subset of the images.

[0134] Optionally, the average score is the metric.

[0135] Optionally, the average score represents an average expected number of co-visibility points for the range of viewing directions for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0136] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the respective scores by accessing a co-visibility graph that associates reference points with the multiple images.

[0137] Optionally, the co-visibility graph indicates which of the reference points is visible in which of the multiple images.

[0138] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine each of the respective scores by determining a number of reference point(s) that is detected in the corresponding one of the images in the subset of images.

[0139] Optionally, the processing unit is also configured to determine an area score indicating a degree of coverage by the map.

[0140] Optionally, the area score is based on a spatial distribution of data points of the map.

[0141] Optionally, at least one of the cells has a footprint area that is 2 m by 2 m.

[0142] Optionally, the at least one of the cells also has a pre-determined height.

[0143] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric by: obtaining a plurality of images from the camera system, the plurality of images including the image for which the score is determined; and determining co-visibility values, wherein each of the co-visibility values indicating a number of reference points detected in a corresponding one of the plurality of images.

[0144] Optionally, the camera system comprises a plurality of cameras.

[0145] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a first subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a first position.

[0146] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a second subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a second position.

[0147] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first forward facing camera.

[0148] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second forward facing camera.

[0149] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first side facing camera.

[0150] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second side facing camera.

[0151] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine a desired viewing direction of the camera system for improving a value of the metric.

[0152] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to generate the graphics based on the determined desired viewing direction, the graphics configured to instruct the user to change a current viewing direction of the camera system to the desired viewing direction.

[0153] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain an additional image after the desired viewing direction of the camera system has been achieved.

[0154] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to update the map based on the additional image.

[0155] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to update the metric based on the updated map.

[0156] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric before using the map to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0157] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric before allowing the apparatus to share content with another apparatus.

[0158] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric during a map construction session in which the processing unit determines the map.

[0159] Optionally, the processing unit is configured to determine the metric retroactively by accessing the map that was previously determined from a non-transitory medium.

[0160] An apparatus configured to be worn on a head of a user, includes: a screen configured to present graphics to the user; a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located; and a processing unit configured to determine a map based at least in part on output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; wherein the processing unit is configured to obtain a score for an image obtained from the camera system, the score indicating how well the image is constrained with respect to a map segment for forming the map, and wherein the processing unit is configured to obtain the score by computing the score or by receiving the score.

[0161] A method performed by an apparatus that is configured to be worn on a head of a user, the apparatus having a screen configured to present graphics to the user, a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located, and a processing unit, includes: obtaining, by the processing unit, output(s) from the camera system; determining a map by the processing unit based at least in part on the output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; and determining, by the processing unit, a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map.

[0162] Optionally, the act of determining the metric comprises computing the metric.

[0163] Optionally, the act of determining the metric comprises receiving the metric.

[0164] Optionally, the metric is determined based on a co-visibility of a point of interest that is associated with different camera positions.

[0165] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of the camera of the camera system.

[0166] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a first camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of a second camera position of the camera system.

[0167] Optionally, the metric indicates a number of reference points that are useable to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0168] Optionally, the metric indicates the likelihood of success to localize the user in one or more viewing directions.

[0169] Optionally, the metric is determined based on a number of times a point of interest is detected from different camera positions.

[0170] Optionally, the metric is determined by the processing unit without determining any convex hull.

[0171] Optionally, the metric has a value that is based on directionality.

[0172] Optionally, the directionality is with respect to one or more vertical axes, and/or one or more horizontal axes.

[0173] Optionally, the directionality comprises a turn direction.

[0174] Optionally, the directionality comprises a tilt angle.

[0175] Optionally, the directionality comprises a roll angle.

[0176] Optionally, the metric has a first value associated with a first directionality, and a second value associated with a second directionality.

[0177] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, and wherein the metric has a value that is based on a position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0178] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, wherein the metric has a first value associated with a first position within the one of the plurality of cells, and a second value associated with a second position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0179] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, and each of the cells represents a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment.

[0180] Optionally, the act of determining the metric comprises determining a total number of images from the camera system that are associated with the one of the plurality of cells.

[0181] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with a certain viewing direction for the cell.

[0182] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with multiple viewing directions for the cell.

[0183] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain multiple images, and wherein the metric is determined for one of the plurality of cells by: identifying a subset of the images that belong to a same range of viewing directions; determining respective scores for the images in the subset of the images; and summing the scores to obtain a total score.

[0184] Optionally, the metric is determined by dividing the total score by a number of the images in the subset of the images to obtain an average score.

[0185] Optionally, the average score is the metric.

[0186] Optionally, the average score represents an average expected number of co-visibility points for the range of viewing directions for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0187] Optionally, the respective scores are determined by accessing a co-visibility graph that associates reference points with the multiple images.

[0188] Optionally, the co-visibility graph indicates which of the reference points is visible in which of the multiple images.

[0189] Optionally, each of the respective scores is determined by determining a number of reference point(s) that is detected in the corresponding one of the images in the subset of images.

[0190] Optionally, the method further includes determining an area score indicating a degree of coverage by the map.

[0191] Optionally, the area score is determined based on a spatial distribution of data points of the map.

[0192] Optionally, at least one of the cells has a footprint area that is 2 m by 2 m.

[0193] Optionally, the at least one of the cells also has a pre-determined height.

[0194] Optionally, the metric is determined by: obtaining a plurality of images from the camera system; and determining co-visibility values, wherein each of the co-visibility values indicating a number of reference points detected in a corresponding one of the plurality of images.

[0195] Optionally, the camera system comprises a plurality of cameras.

[0196] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a first subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a first position.

[0197] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a second subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a second position.

[0198] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first forward facing camera.

[0199] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second forward facing camera.

[0200] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first side facing camera.

[0201] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second side facing camera.

[0202] Optionally, the method further includes determining by the processing unit a desired viewing direction of the camera system for improving a value of the metric.

[0203] Optionally, the method further includes generating the graphics based on the determined desired viewing direction, the graphics configured to instruct the user to change a current viewing direction of the camera system to the desired viewing direction.

[0204] Optionally, the method further includes obtaining an image of the environment from the camera system after the desired viewing direction of the camera system has been achieved.

[0205] Optionally, the method further includes updating the map based on the image.

[0206] Optionally, the method further includes updating the metric based on the updated map.

[0207] Optionally, the metric is determined before the map is used to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0208] Optionally, the metric is determined before the apparatus shares content with another apparatus.

[0209] Optionally, the metric is determined during a map construction session in which the processing unit determines the map.

[0210] Optionally, the metric is determined retroactively by accessing the map that was previously determined from a non-transitory medium.

[0211] Optionally, the method further includes performing a sanitization to remove or to disregard data that would otherwise provide an undesirable contribution for the map if the data is used to determine the map.

[0212] Optionally, the data comprises an image from the camera system, and wherein the sanitization is performed by removing or disregarding the image.

[0213] Optionally, camera system comprises a plurality of cameras, wherein the data comprises a set of images generated by the respective cameras, and wherein the sanitization is performed by removing or disregarding the set of images.

[0214] Optionally, the data comprises an identification of a reference point in an image from the camera system, and wherein the sanitization is performed by disregarding the identification of the reference point.

[0215] Optionally, the data represents a ray or a line that is associated with an image from the camera system and a reference point, and wherein the sanitization is performed by disregarding the ray or the line that is associated with the image.

[0216] Optionally, the sanitization is performed as a part of a local optimization.

[0217] Optionally, the method further includes performing a bundle adjustment to adjust one or more rays associated with one or more images from the camera system, wherein the bundle adjustment is performed after the sanitization is performed to remove the data.

[0218] Optionally, the bundle adjustment is performed as a part of a global optimization.

[0219] Optionally, the global optimization is performed based on images from the camera system and three-dimensional reference points,

[0220] Optionally, the global optimization is performed also based on a relative orientation between cameras of the camera system.

[0221] Optionally, the method further includes determining, by the processing unit, a score for an image obtained from the camera system.

[0222] Optionally, the score is a constraint score.

[0223] Optionally, the score indicates how well the image is constrained.

[0224] Optionally, the score is determined based on a Jacobian of reference points measurements.

[0225] Optionally, the score is determined based on an information matrix that is a diagonal matrix.

[0226] Optionally, the score is determined based on a number of reference points detected in the image.

[0227] Optionally, the method further includes performing data sanitization based on the score.

[0228] Optionally, the act of performing the data sanitization comprises removing a constraint of the image, or removing the image.

[0229] Optionally, the constraint of the image, or the image, is removed when the score is below a threshold.

[0230] Optionally, the map is determined by: determining multiple map segments; and connecting the map segments.

[0231] Optionally, the act of determining the multiple map segments comprises determining a first map segment of the map segments by obtaining images from the camera system, and linking the images, wherein the images are generated in sequence by the camera system.

[0232] Optionally, the method further includes determining respective scores of the images.

[0233] Optionally, the method further includes: obtaining an additional image from the camera system, determining a score for the additional image, and starting a second map segment of the map segments in response to the score of the additional image from the camera system meeting a criterion.

[0234] Optionally, the second map segment is started when the score indicates that the image has a degree of constraint with respect to the first map segment that is below a threshold.

[0235] Optionally, the output(s) comprises one or more images from the camera system.

[0236] A method performed by an apparatus that is configured to be worn on a head of a user, the apparatus having a screen configured to present graphics to the user, a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located, and a processing unit, includes: obtaining, by the processing unit, output(s) from the camera system; determining a map by the processing unit based at least in part on the output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; and obtaining, by the processing unit, a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map, wherein the act of obtaining comprises computing the metric or receiving the metric by the processing unit.

[0237] A method performed by an apparatus that is configured to be worn on a head of a user, the apparatus having a screen configured to present graphics to the user, a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located, and a processing unit, includes: obtaining, by the processing unit, output(s) from the camera system; determining a map by the processing unit based at least in part on the output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; and determining, by the processing unit, a score for an image obtained from the camera system, the score indicating how well the image is constrained with respect to a map segment for forming the map.

[0238] Optionally, the act of determining the score comprises computing the score.

[0239] Optionally, the act of determining the score comprises receiving the score.

[0240] Optionally, the score is determined based on a Jacobian of reference points measurements.

[0241] Optionally, the score is determined based on an information matrix that is a diagonal matrix.

[0242] Optionally, the score is determined based on a number of reference points detected in the image.

[0243] Optionally, the method further includes performing, by the processing unit, data sanitization based on the score.

[0244] Optionally, the act of performing the data sanitization comprises removing a constraint of the image, or removing the image.

[0245] Optionally, the act of performing the data sanitization comprises removing the constraint of the image, or removing the image, when the score is below a threshold.

[0246] Optionally, the sanitization is performed to remove or to disregard data that would otherwise provide an undesirable contribution for the map if the data is used to determine the map.

[0247] Optionally, the data comprises the image from the camera system, and wherein the sanitization is performed to remove or disregard the image.

[0248] Optionally, camera system comprises a plurality of cameras, wherein the data comprises a set of images generated by the respective cameras, and wherein the sanitization is performed to remove or disregard the set of images.

[0249] Optionally, the data comprises an identification of a reference point in the image from the camera system, and wherein the sanitization is performed to disregard the identification of the reference point.

[0250] Optionally, the data represents a ray or a line that is associated with the image from the camera system and a reference point, and wherein the sanitization is performed to disregard the ray or the line that is associated with the image.

[0251] Optionally, the sanitization is performed as a part of a local optimization.

[0252] Optionally, the method further includes performing a bundle adjustment to adjust one or more rays associated with one or more images from the camera system, wherein the bundle adjustment is performed after the sanitization is performed, wherein the image for which the score is determined is one of the one or more images, or is different from the one or more images.

[0253] Optionally, the bundle adjustment is performed as a part of a global optimization.

[0254] Optionally, the method further includes performing, by the processing unit, a the global optimization based on the one or more images from the camera system and three-dimensional reference points,

[0255] Optionally, the global optimization is performed also based on a relative orientation between cameras of the camera system.

[0256] Optionally, the map is determined by: determining multiple map segments, wherein the multiple map segment comprise the map segment; and connecting the map segments; wherein the portion of the map comprises one of the map segments.

[0257] Optionally, the camera system is configured to provide additional images, the additional images generated by the camera system before the image for which the score is determined is generated, wherein the act of determining the map comprises determining a first map segment of the map segments by linking the additional images, and wherein the additional images are generated in sequence by the camera system.

[0258] Optionally, the method further includes determining respective scores of the additional images.

[0259] Optionally, the method further includes starting, by the processing unit, a second map segment of the map segments in response to the score of the image from the camera system meeting a criterion.

[0260] Optionally, the second map segment is started when the score indicates that the image has a degree of constraint with respect to the first map segment that is below a threshold.

[0261] Optionally, the method further includes determining a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize the user using the map.

[0262] Optionally, the metric is determined based on a co-visibility of a point of interest that is associated with different camera positions.

[0263] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of the camera of the camera system.

[0264] Optionally, the camera positions comprise a first camera position of a first camera of the camera system, and a second camera position of a second camera position of the camera system.

[0265] Optionally, the metric indicates a number of reference points that are useable to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0266] Optionally, the metric indicates the likelihood of success to localize the user in one or more viewing directions.

[0267] Optionally, the metric is determined based on a number of times a point of interest is detected from different camera positions.

[0268] Optionally, the metric is determined by the processing unit without determining any convex hull.

[0269] Optionally, the metric has a value that is based on directionality.

[0270] Optionally, the directionality is with respect to one or more vertical axes, and/or one or more horizontal axes.

[0271] Optionally, the directionality comprises a turn direction.

[0272] Optionally, the directionality comprises a tilt angle.

[0273] Optionally, the directionality comprises a roll angle.

[0274] Optionally, the metric has a first value associated with a first directionality, and a second value associated with a second directionality.

[0275] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, and wherein the metric has a value that is based on a position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0276] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, each of the cells representing a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment, wherein the metric has a first value associated with a first position within the one of the plurality of cells, and a second value associated with a second position within the one of the plurality of cells.

[0277] Optionally, the metric is for one of a plurality of cells, and each of the cells represents a three dimensional space of a portion of the environment.

[0278] Optionally, the act of determining the metric comprises determining a total number of images from the camera system that are associated with the one of the plurality of cells.

[0279] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with a certain viewing direction for the cell.

[0280] Optionally, the total number of images is associated with multiple viewing directions for the cell.

[0281] Optionally, the camera system is configured to obtain multiple images, the multiple images including the image for which the score is determined, and wherein the metric is determined for one of the plurality of cells by: identifying a subset of the images that belong to a same range of viewing directions; determining respective scores for the images in the subset of the images; and summing the scores to obtain a total score.

[0282] Optionally, the method further includes dividing the total score by a number of the images in the subset of the images to obtain an average score.

[0283] Optionally, the average score is the metric.

[0284] Optionally, the average score represents an average expected number of co-visibility points for the range of viewing directions for the one of the plurality of cells.

[0285] Optionally, the respective scores are determined by accessing a co-visibility graph that associates reference points with the multiple images.

[0286] Optionally, the co-visibility graph indicates which of the reference points is visible in which of the multiple images.

[0287] Optionally, each of the respective scores is determined by determining a number of reference point(s) that is detected in the corresponding one of the images in the subset of images.

[0288] Optionally, the method further includes determining an area score indicating a degree of coverage by the map.

[0289] Optionally, the area score is based on a spatial distribution of data points of the map.

[0290] Optionally, at least one of the cells has a footprint area that is 2 m by 2 m.

[0291] Optionally, the at least one of the cells also has a pre-determined height.

[0292] Optionally, the metric is determined by: obtaining a plurality of images from the camera system, the plurality of images including the image for which the score is determined; and determining co-visibility values, wherein each of the co-visibility values indicating a number of reference points detected in a corresponding one of the plurality of images.

[0293] Optionally, the camera system comprises a plurality of cameras.

[0294] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a first subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a first position.

[0295] Optionally, the plurality of images comprises a second subset of images generated by the plurality of cameras when the camera system is at a second position.

[0296] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first forward facing camera.

[0297] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second forward facing camera.

[0298] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a first side facing camera.

[0299] Optionally, the plurality of cameras comprises a second side facing camera.

[0300] Optionally, the method further includes determining, by the processing unit, a desired viewing direction of the camera system for improving a value of the metric.

[0301] Optionally, the method further includes generating the graphics based on the determined desired viewing direction, the graphics configured to instruct the user to change a current viewing direction of the camera system to the desired viewing direction.

[0302] Optionally, the method further includes obtaining an additional image from the camera system after the desired viewing direction of the camera system has been achieved.

[0303] Optionally, the method further includes updating the map based on the additional image.

[0304] Optionally, the method further includes updating the metric based on the updated map.

[0305] Optionally, the metric is determined before the processing unit uses the map to localize the user with respect to the environment.

[0306] Optionally, the metric is determined before the apparatus shares content with another apparatus.

[0307] Optionally, the metric is determined during a map construction session in which the processing unit determines the map.

[0308] Optionally, the metric is determined retroactively by accessing the map that was previously determined from a non-transitory medium.

[0309] A method performed by an apparatus that is configured to be worn on a head of a user, the apparatus having a screen configured to present graphics to the user, a camera system configured to view an environment in which the user is located, and a processing unit, includes: obtaining, by the processing unit, output(s) from the camera system; determining a map by the processing unit based at least in part on the output(s) from the camera system, wherein the map is configured for use by the processing unit to localize the user with respect to the environment; and obtaining, by the processing unit, a score for an image obtained from the camera system, the score indicating how well the image is constrained with respect to a map segment for forming the map, wherein the act of obtaining the score comprises computing the score or receiving the score.

[0310] Additional and other objects, features, and advantages of the disclosure are described in the detail description, figures and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0311] The drawings illustrate the design and utility of various embodiments of the present disclosure. It should be noted that the figures are not drawn to scale and that elements of similar structures or functions are represented by like reference numerals throughout the figures. In order to better appreciate how to obtain the above-recited and other advantages and objects of various embodiments of the disclosure, a more detailed description of the present disclosures briefly described above will be rendered by reference to specific embodiments thereof, which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Understanding that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the disclosure and are not therefore to be considered limiting of its scope, the disclosure will be described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings in which:

[0312] FIG. 1 illustrates another image display system having an image display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0313] FIG. 2 illustrates another image display system having an image display device in accordance with other embodiments.

[0314] FIG. 3 illustrates another image display system having an image display device in accordance with other embodiments.

[0315] FIG. 4 illustrates another image display system having an image display device in accordance with other embodiments.

[0316] FIG. 5 illustrates an image display device displaying frames in multiple depth planes.

[0317] FIG. 6 illustrates a method for determining a map for allowing an image display device to localize a user of the image display device, and/or to perform other function(s).

[0318] FIG. 7 illustrates an example of an environment being divided into multiple cells.

[0319] FIG. 8A illustrates a method of determining a metric indicating a likelihood of success to localize a user using a map.

[0320] FIG. 8B illustrates a graphical representation of the method of FIG. 8A.

[0321] FIG. 9 illustrates an example of a co-visibility graph.

[0322] FIG. 10 illustrates a map-and-localization management method.

[0323] FIG. 11 illustrates a method of sharing content between users of image display devices.

[0324] FIG. 12 illustrates a technique for determining a map for allowing an image display device to localize a user of the image display device, and/or to perform other function(s).

[0325] FIG. 13 illustrates a method for determining a map for allowing an image display device to localize a user of the image display device, and/or to perform other function(s).

[0326] FIG. 14 illustrates a method performed by an image display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0327] FIG. 15 illustrates another method performed by an image display device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0328] FIG. 16 illustrates a specialized processing system in accordance with some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0329] Various embodiments of the disclosure are directed to methods, apparatuses, and articles of manufacture for providing input for video image devices that are configured to be worn on users’ heads. Other objects, features, and advantages of the disclosure are described in the detailed description, figures, and claims.

[0330] Various embodiments are described hereinafter with reference to the figures. It should be noted that the figures are not drawn to scale and that elements of similar structures or functions are represented by like reference numerals throughout the figures. It should also be noted that the figures are only intended to facilitate the description of the embodiments. They are not intended as an exhaustive description of the invention or as a limitation on the scope of the invention. In addition, an illustrated embodiment needs not have all the aspects or advantages shown. An aspect or an advantage described in conjunction with a particular embodiment is not necessarily limited to that embodiment and can be practiced in any other embodiments even if not so illustrated, or if not so explicitly described.

[0331] The description that follows pertains to an illustrative VR, AR, and/or MR system with which embodiments described herein may be practiced. However, it is to be understood that the embodiments also lends themselves to applications in other types of display systems (including other types of VR, AR, and/or MR systems), and therefore the embodiments are not to be limited to only the illustrative examples disclosed herein.

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