Facebook Patent | Hybrid Fresnel Lens With Increased Field Of View

Patent: Hybrid Fresnel Lens With Increased Field Of View

Publication Number: 10379348

Publication Date: 20190813

Applicants: Facebook

Abstract

A lens defined by a first lens surface and a second lens surface opposite to the first lens surface is disclosed. The lens includes a first portion; and a second portion that is distinct from the first portion and is located around the first portion. The first lens surface for the first portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the first portion of the lens is defined by a smooth surface profile. The first lens surface for a second portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the second portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile.

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/264,496, entitled “Hybrid Fresnel Lens with Reduced Artifacts,” filed Sep. 13, 2016 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/264,515, entitled “Dynamic Draft for Fresnel Lenses,” filed Sep. 13, 2016, both of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This relates generally to optical lenses, and more specifically to optical lenses used in head-mounted display devices.

BACKGROUND

Head-mounted display devices (also called herein head-mounted displays) are gaining popularity as means for providing visual information to user. However, the size and weight of conventional head-mounted displays have limited applications of head-mounted displays.

While a large display can be used to provide a large field of view, the use of a smaller display (for reducing the weight of the head-mounted displays) can reduce a field of view. For example, conventional head-mounted display devices have a field of view less than a field of view of a human eye (typically, 60.degree. in a superior direction, 60.degree. in a nasal direction, 70-75.degree. in an inferior direction, and 100-110.degree. in a temporal direction). The limited field of view reduces the quality of user experience (e.g., a user may not feel fully immersed in a virtual reality environment).

SUMMARY

Accordingly, there is a need for head-mounted displays that are compact and light and provide a large field of view, thereby enhancing the user’s virtual-reality and/or augmented reality experience.

Fresnel lenses provide apertures and focal lengths comparable to conventional lenses. Because Fresnel lenses are typically thinner and lighter than conventional lenses of similar performance features (e.g., aperture and/or focal length), replacing conventional lenses in head-mounted displays with Fresnel lenses can reduce the size and weight of the head-mounted displays. However, Fresnel lenses suffer from diffractions and other artifacts associated with Fresnel structures, and thus, their use in imaging applications is limited.

Thus, there is a need for lenses that are compact and light and provide a large field of view while maintaining the quality of projected images.

The above deficiencies and other problems associated with conventional lenses are reduced or eliminated by the disclosed lens. In some embodiments, the lens is included in a display device. In some embodiments, the device is a head-mounted display device. In some embodiments, the device is portable.

In accordance with some embodiments, a lens is defined by a first lens surface and a second lens surface opposite to the first lens surface. The lens includes a first portion and a second portion that is distinct from the first portion and is located around the first portion. The first lens surface for the first portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the first portion of the lens is defined by a smooth surface profile. The first lens surface for a second portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the second portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile.

In accordance with some embodiments, a display device includes a lens described herein and an array of light emitting devices coupled with the lens for outputting light through the lens.

Thus, the disclosed embodiments provide compact and light weight display devices with increased efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction with such devices.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a better understanding of the various described embodiments, reference should be made to the Description of Embodiments below, in conjunction with the following drawings in which like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the figures.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a system including a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3A is an isometric view of a display device in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3B is an isometric view of a lens from a first direction in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3C is an isometric view of the lens shown in FIG. 3B from a second direction in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3D shows a plan view and a cross-sectional view of the lens shown in FIG. 3B.

FIG. 3E is a cross-sectional view of a lens in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3F is a cross-sectional view of a lens in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3G shows Fresnel structures of the lens shown in FIG. 3F in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3H is a cross-sectional view of a lens in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3I is a cross-sectional view of a lens in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 3J is a cross-sectional view of a lens in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 4A illustrates an exemplary surface profile in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 4B illustrates an exemplary surface profile in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 4C illustrates an exemplary surface profile in accordance with some embodiments.

FIG. 4D illustrates an exemplary surface profile in accordance with some embodiments.

These figures are not drawn to scale unless indicated otherwise.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Conventional head-mounted displays are larger and heavier than typical eyeglasses, because conventional head-mounted displays often include a complex set of optics that can be bulky and heavy. It is not easy for users to get used to wearing such large and heavy head-mounted displays.

Fresnel lenses, having multiple concentric annular sections that are offset from one another (e.g., for a circular lens), provide apertures and focal lengths comparable to conventional lenses. Because Fresnel lenses are typically thinner and lighter than conventional lenses of similar performance features (e.g., aperture and/or focal length), replacing conventional lenses in head-mounted displays with Fresnel lenses can reduce the size and weight of the head-mounted displays. However, Fresnel lenses suffer from diffractions and other stray light artifacts associated with Fresnel structures, and thus, their use in imaging applications is limited.

The disclosed embodiments provide lenses, with hybrid surface profiles, that are compact and light, and provide an increased field of view with less optical artifacts.

Reference will now be made to embodiments, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide an understanding of the various described embodiments. However, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that the various described embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, circuits, and networks have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the embodiments.

It will also be understood that, although the terms first, second, etc. are, in some instances, used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are used only to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first surface could be termed a second surface, and, similarly, a second surface could be termed a first surface, without departing from the scope of the various described embodiments. The first surface and the second surface are both surfaces, but they are not the same surfaces.

The terminology used in the description of the various described embodiments herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting. As used in the description of the various described embodiments and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will also be understood that the term “and/or” as used herein refers to and encompasses any and all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. It will be further understood that the terms “includes,” “including,” “comprises,” and/or “comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. The term “exemplary” is used herein in the sense of “serving as an example, instance, or illustration” and not in the sense of “representing the best of its kind.”

FIG. 1 illustrates display device 100 in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, display device 100 is configured to be worn on a head of a user (e.g., by having the form of spectacles or eyeglasses, as shown in FIG. 1) or to be included as part of a helmet that is to be worn by the user. When display device 100 is configured to be worn on a head of a user or to be included as part of a helmet, display device 100 is called a head-mounted display. Alternatively, display device 100 is configured for placement in proximity of an eye or eyes of the user at a fixed location, without being head-mounted (e.g., display device 100 is mounted in a vehicle, such as a car or an airplane, for placement in front of an eye or eyes of the user).

In some embodiments, display device 100 includes one or more components described below with respect to FIG. 2. In some embodiments, display device 100 includes additional components not shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of system 200 in accordance with some embodiments. The system 200 shown in FIG. 2 includes display device 205 (which corresponds to display device 100 shown in FIG. 1), imaging device 235, and input interface 240 that are each coupled to console 210. While FIG. 2 shows an example of system 200 including one display device 205, imaging device 235, and input interface 240, in other embodiments, any number of these components may be included in system 200. For example, there may be multiple display devices 205 each having associated input interface 240 and being monitored by one or more imaging devices 235, with each display device 205, input interface 240, and imaging devices 235 communicating with console 210. In alternative configurations, different and/or additional components may be included in system 200. For example, in some embodiments, console 210 is connected via a network (e.g., the Internet) to system 200 or is self-contained as part of display device 205 (e.g., physically located inside display device 205). In some embodiments, display device 205 is used to create mixed reality by adding in a view of the real surroundings. Thus, display device 205 and system 200 described here can deliver virtual reality, mixed reality, and augmented reality.

In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 1, display device 205 is a head-mounted display that presents media to a user. Examples of media presented by display device 205 include one or more images, video, audio, or some combination thereof. In some embodiments, audio is presented via an external device (e.g., speakers and/or headphones) that receives audio information from display device 205, console 210, or both, and presents audio data based on the audio information. In some embodiments, display device 205 immerses a user in a virtual environment.

In some embodiments, display device 205 also acts as an augmented reality (AR) headset. In these embodiments, display device 205 augments views of a physical, real-world environment with computer-generated elements (e.g., images, video, sound, etc.). Moreover, in some embodiments, display device 205 is able to cycle between different types of operation. Thus, display device 205 operate as a virtual reality (VR) device, an AR device, as glasses or some combination thereof (e.g., glasses with no optical correction, glasses optically corrected for the user, sunglasses, or some combination thereof) based on instructions from application engine 255.

Display device 205 includes electronic display 215, one or more processors 216, eye tracking module 217, adjustment module 218, one or more locators 220, one or more position sensors 225, one or more position cameras 222, memory 228, inertial measurement unit (IMU) 230, or a subset or superset thereof (e.g., display device 205 with electronic display 215, one or more processors 216, and memory 228, without any other listed components). Some embodiments of display device 205 have different modules than those described here. Similarly, the functions can be distributed among the modules in a different manner than is described here.

One or more processors 216 (e.g., processing units or cores) execute instructions stored in memory 228. Memory 228 includes high-speed random access memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, DDR RAM or other random access solid state memory devices; and may include non-volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, optical disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid state storage devices. Memory 228, or alternately the non-volatile memory device(s) within memory 228, includes a non-transitory computer readable storage medium. In some embodiments, memory 228 or the computer readable storage medium of memory 228 stores programs, modules and data structures, and/or instructions for displaying one or more images on electronic display 215.

Electronic display 215 displays images to the user in accordance with data received from console 210 and/or processor(s) 216. In various embodiments, electronic display 215 may comprise a single adjustable electronic display element or multiple adjustable electronic displays elements (e.g., a display for each eye of a user).

In some embodiments, the display element includes one or more light emission devices and a corresponding array of emission intensity array. An emission intensity array is an array of electro-optic pixels, opto-electronic pixels, some other array of devices that dynamically adjust the amount of light transmitted by each device, or some combination thereof. These pixels are placed behind one or more lenses. In some embodiments, the emission intensity array is an array of liquid crystal based pixels in an LCD (a Liquid Crystal Display). Examples of the light emission devices include: an organic light emitting diode, an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, a light emitting diode, some type of device capable of being placed in a flexible display, or some combination thereof. The light emission devices include devices that are capable of generating visible light (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.) used for image generation. The emission intensity array is configured to selectively attenuate individual light emission devices, groups of light emission devices, or some combination thereof. Alternatively, when the light emission devices are configured to selectively attenuate individual emission devices and/or groups of light emission devices, the display element includes an array of such light emission devices without a separate emission intensity array.

One or more lenses direct light from the arrays of light emission devices (optionally through the emission intensity arrays) to locations within each eyebox and ultimately to the back of the user’s retina(s). An eyebox is a region that is occupied by an eye of a user located proximity to display device 205 (e.g., a user wearing display device 205) for viewing images from display device 205. In some cases, the eyebox is represented as a 10 mm.times.10 mm square. In some embodiments, the one or more lenses include one or more coatings, such as anti-reflective coatings.

In some embodiments, the display element includes an infrared (IR) detector array that detects IR light that is retro-reflected from the retinas of a viewing user, from the surface of the corneas, lenses of the eyes, or some combination thereof. The IR detector array includes an IR sensor or a plurality of IR sensors that each correspond to a different position of a pupil of the viewing user’s eye. In alternate embodiments, other eye tracking systems may also be employed.

Eye tracking module 217 determines locations of each pupil of a user’s eyes. In some embodiments, eye tracking module 217 instructs electronic display 215 to illuminate the eyebox with IR light (e.g., via IR emission devices in the display element).

A portion of the emitted IR light will pass through the viewing user’s pupil and be retro-reflected from the retina toward the IR detector array, which is used for determining the location of the pupil. Alternatively, the reflection off of the surfaces of the eye is used to also determine location of the pupil. The IR detector array scans for retro-reflection and identifies which IR emission devices are active when retro-reflection is detected. Eye tracking module 217 may use a tracking lookup table and the identified IR emission devices to determine the pupil locations for each eye. The tracking lookup table maps received signals on the IR detector array to locations (corresponding to pupil locations) in each eyebox. In some embodiments, the tracking lookup table is generated via a calibration procedure (e.g., user looks at various known reference points in an image and eye tracking module 217 maps the locations of the user’s pupil while looking at the reference points to corresponding signals received on the IR tracking array). As mentioned above, in some embodiments, system 200 may use other eye tracking systems than the embedded IR one described above.

Adjustment module 218 generates an image frame based on the determined locations of the pupils. In some embodiments, this sends a discrete image to the display that will tile subimages together thus a coherent stitched image will appear on the back of the retina. Adjustment module 218 adjusts an output (i.e. the generated image frame) of electronic display 215 based on the detected locations of the pupils. Adjustment module 218 instructs portions of electronic display 215 to pass image light to the determined locations of the pupils. In some embodiments, adjustment module 218 also instructs the electronic display to not pass image light to positions other than the determined locations of the pupils. Adjustment module 218 may, for example, block and/or stop light emission devices whose image light falls outside of the determined pupil locations, allow other light emission devices to emit image light that falls within the determined pupil locations, translate and/or rotate one or more display elements, dynamically adjust curvature and/or refractive power of one or more active lenses in the lens (e.g., microlens) arrays, or some combination thereof.

Optional locators 220 are objects located in specific positions on display device 205 relative to one another and relative to a specific reference point on display device 205. A locator 220 may be a light emitting diode (LED), a corner cube reflector, a reflective marker, a type of light source that contrasts with an environment in which display device 205 operates, or some combination thereof. In embodiments where locators 220 are active (i.e., an LED or other type of light emitting device), locators 220 may emit light in the visible band (e.g., about 400 nm to 750 nm), in the infrared band (e.g., about 750 nm to 1 mm), in the ultraviolet band (about 100 nm to 400 nm), some other portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, or some combination thereof.

In some embodiments, locators 220 are located beneath an outer surface of display device 205, which is transparent to the wavelengths of light emitted or reflected by locators 220 or is thin enough to not substantially attenuate the wavelengths of light emitted or reflected by locators 220. Additionally, in some embodiments, the outer surface or other portions of display device 205 are opaque in the visible band of wavelengths of light. Thus, locators 220 may emit light in the IR band under an outer surface that is transparent in the IR band but opaque in the visible band.

IMU 230 is an electronic device that generates calibration data based on measurement signals received from one or more position sensors 225. Position sensor 225 generates one or more measurement signals in response to motion of display device 205. Examples of position sensors 225 include: one or more accelerometers, one or more gyroscopes, one or more magnetometers, another suitable type of sensor that detects motion, a type of sensor used for error correction of IMU 230, or some combination thereof. Position sensors 225 may be located external to IMU 230, internal to IMU 230, or some combination thereof.

Based on the one or more measurement signals from one or more position sensors 225, IMU 230 generates first calibration data indicating an estimated position of display device 205 relative to an initial position of display device 205. For example, position sensors 225 include multiple accelerometers to measure translational motion (forward/back, up/down, left/right) and multiple gyroscopes to measure rotational motion (e.g., pitch, yaw, roll). In some embodiments, IMU 230 rapidly samples the measurement signals and calculates the estimated position of display device 205 from the sampled data. For example, IMU 230 integrates the measurement signals received from the accelerometers over time to estimate a velocity vector and integrates the velocity vector over time to determine an estimated position of a reference point on display device 205. Alternatively, IMU 230 provides the sampled measurement signals to console 210, which determines the first calibration data. The reference point is a point that may be used to describe the position of display device 205. While the reference point may generally be defined as a point in space; however, in practice the reference point is defined as a point within display device 205 (e.g., a center of IMU 230).

In some embodiments, IMU 230 receives one or more calibration parameters from console 210. As further discussed below, the one or more calibration parameters are used to maintain tracking of display device 205. Based on a received calibration parameter, IMU 230 may adjust one or more IMU parameters (e.g., sample rate). In some embodiments, certain calibration parameters cause IMU 230 to update an initial position of the reference point so it corresponds to a next calibrated position of the reference point. Updating the initial position of the reference point as the next calibrated position of the reference point helps reduce accumulated error associated with the determined estimated position. The accumulated error, also referred to as drift error, causes the estimated position of the reference point to “drift” away from the actual position of the reference point over time.

Imaging device 235 generates calibration data in accordance with calibration parameters received from console 210. Calibration data includes one or more images showing observed positions of locators 220 that are detectable by imaging device 235. In some embodiments, imaging device 235 includes one or more still cameras, one or more video cameras, any other device capable of capturing images including one or more locators 220, or some combination thereof. Additionally, imaging device 235 may include one or more filters (e.g., used to increase signal to noise ratio). Imaging device 235 is configured to optionally detect light emitted or reflected from locators 220 in a field of view of imaging device 235. In embodiments where locators 220 include passive elements (e.g., a retroreflector), imaging device 235 may include a light source that illuminates some or all of locators 220, which retro-reflect the light towards the light source in imaging device 235. Second calibration data is communicated from imaging device 235 to console 210, and imaging device 235 receives one or more calibration parameters from console 210 to adjust one or more imaging parameters (e.g., focal length, focus, frame rate, ISO, sensor temperature, shutter speed, aperture, etc.).

Input interface 240 is a device that allows a user to send action requests to console 210. An action request is a request to perform a particular action. For example, an action request may be to start or end an application or to perform a particular action within the application. Input interface 240 may include one or more input devices. Example input devices include: a keyboard, a mouse, a game controller, data from brain signals, data from other parts of the human body, or any other suitable device for receiving action requests and communicating the received action requests to console 210. An action request received by input interface 240 is communicated to console 210, which performs an action corresponding to the action request. In some embodiments, input interface 240 may provide haptic feedback to the user in accordance with instructions received from console 210. For example, haptic feedback is provided when an action request is received, or console 210 communicates instructions to input interface 240 causing input interface 240 to generate haptic feedback when console 210 performs an action.

Console 210 provides media to display device 205 for presentation to the user in accordance with information received from one or more of: imaging device 235, display device 205, and input interface 240. In the example shown in FIG. 2, console 210 includes application store 245, tracking module 250, and application engine 255. Some embodiments of console 210 have different modules than those described in conjunction with FIG. 2. Similarly, the functions further described below may be distributed among components of console 210 in a different manner than is described here.

When application store 245 is included in console 210, application store 245 stores one or more applications for execution by console 210. An application is a group of instructions, that when executed by a processor, is used for generating content for presentation to the user. Content generated by the processor based on an application may be in response to inputs received from the user via movement of display device 205 or input interface 240. Examples of applications include: gaming applications, conferencing applications, video playback application, or other suitable applications.

When tracking module 250 is included in console 210, tracking module 250 calibrates system 200 using one or more calibration parameters and may adjust one or more calibration parameters to reduce error in determination of the position of display device 205. For example, tracking module 250 adjusts the focus of imaging device 235 to obtain a more accurate position for observed locators on display device 205. Moreover, calibration performed by tracking module 250 also accounts for information received from IMU 230. Additionally, if tracking of display device 205 is lost (e.g., imaging device 235 loses line of sight of at least a threshold number of locators 220), tracking module 250 re-calibrates some or all of system 200.

In some embodiments, tracking module 250 tracks movements of display device 205 using second calibration data from imaging device 235. For example, tracking module 250 determines positions of a reference point of display device 205 using observed locators from the second calibration data and a model of display device 205. In some embodiments, tracking module 250 also determines positions of a reference point of display device 205 using position information from the first calibration data. Additionally, in some embodiments, tracking module 250 may use portions of the first calibration data, the second calibration data, or some combination thereof, to predict a future location of display device 205. Tracking module 250 provides the estimated or predicted future position of display device 205 to application engine 255.

Application engine 255 executes applications within system 200 and receives position information, acceleration information, velocity information, predicted future positions, or some combination thereof of display device 205 from tracking module 250. Based on the received information, application engine 255 determines content to provide to display device 205 for presentation to the user. For example, if the received information indicates that the user has looked to the left, application engine 255 generates content for display device 205 that mirrors the user’s movement in a virtual environment. Additionally, application engine 255 performs an action within an application executing on console 210 in response to an action request received from input interface 240 and provides feedback to the user that the action was performed. The provided feedback may be visual or audible feedback via display device 205 or haptic feedback via input interface 240.

FIG. 3A is an isometric view of display device 300 in accordance with some embodiments. In some other embodiments, display device 300 is part of some other electronic display (e.g., digital microscope, etc.). In some embodiments, display device 300 includes light emission device array 310 and one or more lenses (e.g., lens 320). In some embodiments, display device 300 also includes an emission intensity array and an IR detector array.

Light emission device array 310 emits image light and optional IR light toward the viewing user. Light emission device array 310 may be, e.g., an array of LEDs, an array of microLEDs, an array of OLEDs, or some combination thereof Light emission device array 310 includes light emission devices 312 that emit visible light (and optionally includes devices that emit IR light).

The emission intensity array is configured to selectively attenuate light emitted from light emission array 310. In some embodiments, the emission intensity array is composed of a plurality of liquid crystal cells or pixels, groups of light emission devices, or some combination thereof. Each of the liquid crystal cells is, or in some embodiments, groups of liquid crystal cells are, addressable to have specific levels of attenuation. For example, at a given time, some of the liquid crystal cells may be set to no attenuation, while other liquid crystal cells may be set to maximum attenuation. In this manner the emission intensity array is able to control what portion of the image light emitted from light emission device array 310 is passed to the one or more lenses (e.g., lens 320). In some embodiments, display device 300 uses the emission intensity array to facilitate providing image light to a location of pupil 332 of eye 330 of a user, and minimize the amount of image light provided to other areas in the eyebox.

One or more lenses (e.g., lens 320) receive the modified image light (e.g., attenuated light) from the emission intensity array (or directly from emission device array 310), and directs the modified image light to a location of pupil 332. Lens 320 includes one or more diffractive optics. In some embodiments, the one or more lenses include one or more active lenses. An active lens is a lens whose lens curvature and/or refractive ability may be dynamically controlled (e.g., via a change in applied voltage). An active lens may be a liquid crystal lens, a liquid lens (e.g., using electro-wetting), or some other lens whose curvature and/or refractive ability may be dynamically controlled, or some combination thereof. Accordingly, in some embodiments, system 200 may dynamically adjust the curvature and/or refractive ability of active lenslets to direct light received from the emission device array 310 to pupil 332.

An optional IR detector array detects IR light that has been retro-reflected from the retina of eye 330, a cornea of eye 330, a crystalline lens of eye 330, or some combination thereof. The IR detector array includes either a single IR sensor or a plurality of IR sensitive detectors (e.g., photodiodes). In some embodiments, the IR detector array is separate from light emission device array 310. In some embodiments, the IR detector array is integrated into light emission device array 310.

In some embodiments, light emission device array 310 and the emission intensity array make up a display element. Alternatively, the display element includes light emission device array 310 (e.g., when light emission device array 310 includes individually adjustable pixels) without the emission intensity array. In some embodiments, the display element additionally includes the IR array. In some embodiments, in response to a determined location of pupil 332, the display element adjusts the emitted image light such that the light output by the display element is refracted by one or more lenses (e.g., lens 320) toward the determined location of pupil 332, and not toward other locations in the eyebox.

FIG. 3B is an isometric view of lens 340 from a first direction (e.g., a direction from which first lens surface 346 of lens 340 is visible) in accordance with some embodiments. Lens 340 includes first portion 342 (e.g., a central portion) and second portion 344 (e.g., an annular portion) around first portion 342. First portion 342 of lens 340 includes portion 346-1 of first lens surface 346. In some embodiments, portion 346-1 of first lens surface 346 is a flat surface. In some embodiments, portion 346-1 of first lens surface 346 is a Fresnel surface (e.g., Fresnel structures arranged on a flat surface). Second portion 344 of lens 340 includes portion 346-2 of first lens surface 346. In some embodiments, portion 346-2 of first lens surface 346 is a convex surface. In some embodiments, portion 346-2 of first lens surface 346 is a Fresnel surface (e.g., Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface).

In some embodiments, Fresnel structures have a constant pitch (e.g., 50 .mu.m, 60 .mu.m, 70 .mu.m, 80 .mu.m, 90 .mu.m, 100 .mu.m, 150 .mu.m, 200 .mu.m, 250 .mu.m, 300 .mu.m, 350 .mu.m, 400 .mu.m, 450 .mu.m, 500 .mu.m, 550 .mu.m, 600 .mu.m, 700 .mu.m, 800 .mu.m, 900 .mu.m, 1 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.3 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, etc.).

The lens shown in FIG. 3B is axisymmetric (e.g., rotationally symmetric about a center of the lens). Although the lens shown in FIG. 3B is a circular lens, in some embodiments, a portion of the circular lens is cut out (e.g., a rectangular portion of the lens, as shown in FIG. 3A, is used).

FIG. 3C is an isometric view of lens 340 shown in FIG. 3B from a second direction (e.g., a direction from which second lens surface 348 that is opposite to first lens surface 346 shown in FIG. 3B is visible) in accordance with some embodiments. First portion 342 of lens 340 includes portion 348-1 of second lens surface 348. In some embodiments, portion 348-1 of second lens surface 348 is a convex surface. In some embodiments, portion 348-1 of second lens surface 348 does not include Fresnel structures. Second portion 344 of lens includes portion 348-2 of second lens surface 348. In some embodiments, portion 348-2 of second lens surface 348 is a concave surface. In some embodiments, portion 348-2 of second lens surface 348 is a Fresnel surface (e.g., a concave surface with Fresnel structures).

FIG. 3D shows a plan view and a cross-sectional view of lens 340 shown in FIG. 3B. As explained above, lens 340 includes first portion 342 and second portion 344 around first portion 342. First portion 342 includes portion 346-1 of first lens surface 346, and portion 348-1 of second lens surface 348 that is opposite to portion 346-1 of first lens surface 346. Second portion 344 includes portion 346-2 of first lens surface 346, and portion 348-2 of second lens surface 348 that is opposite to portion 346-2 of first lens surface 346. Portion 346-1 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a flat surface). Portion 348-1 is defined by a smooth surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that does not include Fresnel structures, such as a convex surface without Fresnel structures). Portion 346-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 348-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a concave surface).

As described above, the central region of lens 340 corresponding to first portion 342 includes Fresnel structures on only one of the two lens surfaces, first lens surface 346 and second lens surface 348. This reduces optical artifacts in lens 340, compared to a lens having Fresnel structures on both lens surfaces. Because optical artifacts are reduced for the central region, a user viewing an image through lens 340 is less likely to perceive optical artifacts. The annular region of lens 340 corresponding to second portion 344 includes Fresnel structures on both first lens surface 346 and second lens surface 348. This increases refraction of light passing through the annular region of lens 340.

In some embodiments, when lens 340 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 340 is positioned so that first lens surface 346 faces light emission device array 310 (and second lens surface 348 faces an eye of a user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device). In some other embodiments, when lens 340 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 340 is positioned so that second lens surface 348 faces light emission device array 310 (and first lens surface 346 faces the eye of the user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device).

FIG. 3E is a cross-sectional view of lens 350 in accordance with some embodiments.

Lens 350 includes first portion 352 and second portion 354 around first portion 352. First portion 352 includes portion 356-1 of first lens surface 356, and portion 358-1 of second lens surface 358 that is opposite to portion 356-1 of first lens surface 356. Second portion 354 includes portion 356-2 of first lens surface 356, and portion 358-2 of second lens surface 358 that is opposite to portion 356-2 of first lens surface 356. Portion 356-1 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 358-1 is defined by a smooth surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that does not include Fresnel structures, such as a convex surface without Fresnel structures). Portion 356-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 358-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a concave surface).

In lens 350, first lens surface 356 transitions continuously from portion 356-1 to portion 356-2. For example, in some embodiments, a slope of portion 356-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2 is the same as a slope of portion 356-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2. In some embodiments, a derivative of the slope of portion 356-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2 is the same as a derivative of the slope of portion 356-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2. In some embodiments, a second derivative of the slope of portion 356-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2 is the same as a second derivative of the slope of portion 356-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 356-1 and portion 356-2. This transition reduces optical artifacts and reduces the visibility of the transition.

In some embodiments, when lens 350 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 350 is positioned so that first lens surface 356 faces light emission device array 310 (and second lens surface 358 faces an eye of a user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device). In some other embodiments, when lens 350 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 350 is positioned so that second lens surface 358 faces light emission device array 310 (and first lens surface 356 faces the eye of the user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device).

In some embodiments, lens 350 in FIG. 3E provides a temporal field of view of 70.degree., 71.degree., 72.degree., 73.degree., 74.degree., 75.degree., 76.degree., 77.degree., 78.degree., 79.degree., 80.degree., 90.degree., or 100.degree. (e.g., for an eye relief of 20 mm).

FIG. 3F is a cross-sectional view of lens 360 in accordance with some embodiments.

Lens 360 includes first portion 362 and second portion 364 around first portion 362. First portion 362 includes portion 366-1 of first lens surface 366, and portion 368-1 of second lens surface 368 that is opposite to portion 366-1 of first lens surface 366. Second portion 364 includes portion 366-2 of first lens surface 366, and portion 368-2 of second lens surface 368 that is opposite to portion 366-2 of first lens surface 366. Portion 366-1 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 368-1 is defined by a smooth surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that does not include Fresnel structures, such as a flat surface without Fresnel structures). Portion 366-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 368-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a concave surface).

In lens 360, first lens surface 366 transitions continuously from portion 366-1 to portion 366-2. For example, in some embodiments, a slope of portion 366-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2 is the same as a slope of portion 366-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2. In some embodiments, a derivative of the slope of portion 366-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2 is the same as a derivative of the slope of portion 366-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2. In some embodiments, a second derivative of the slope of portion 366-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2 is the same as a second derivative of the slope of portion 366-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 366-1 and portion 366-2. This transition reduces optical artifacts and reduces the visibility of the transition.

In some embodiments, second lens surface 368 transitions continuously from portion 368-1 to portion 368-2. For example, in some embodiments, a slope of portion 368-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 368-1 and portion 368-2 is the same as a slope of portion 368-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 368-1 and portion 368-2. This transition further reduces optical artifacts and reduces the visibility of the transition.

In some embodiments, lens 360 in FIG. 3F provides a temporal field of view that is larger than the temporal field of view provided by lens 350 in FIG. 3E. In some embodiments, lens 360 in FIG. 3F provides a temporal field of view of 80.degree., 81.degree., 82.degree., 83.degree., 84.degree., 85.degree., 86.degree., 87.degree., 88.degree., 90.degree., or 100.degree. (e.g., for an eye relief of 20 mm).

FIG. 3G shows Fresnel structures of lens 360 shown in FIG. 3F in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, lens 360 includes Fresnel structures smaller than the Fresnel structures illustrated in FIG. 3G. In some embodiments, lens 360 includes Fresnel structures larger than the Fresnel structures illustrated in FIG. 3G.

As explained above, portion 366-1 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 368-1 is defined by a smooth surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that does not include Fresnel structures, such as a flat surface without Fresnel structures). Portion 366-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 368-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a concave surface).

In some embodiments, when lens 360 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 360 is positioned so that first lens surface 366 faces light emission device array 310 (and second lens surface 368 faces an eye of a user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device). In some other embodiments, when lens 360 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 360 is positioned so that second lens surface 368 faces light emission device array 310 (and first lens surface 366 faces the eye of the user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device).

FIG. 3H is a cross-sectional view of lens 370 in accordance with some embodiments.

Lens 370 includes first portion 372 and second portion 374 around first portion 372. First portion 372 includes portion 376-1 of first lens surface 376, and portion 378-1 of second lens surface 378 that is opposite to portion 376-1 of first lens surface 376. Second portion 374 includes portion 376-2 of first lens surface 376, and portion 378-2 of second lens surface 378 that is opposite to portion 376-2 of first lens surface 376. Portion 376-1 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 378-1 is defined by a smooth surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that does not include Fresnel structures, such as a convex surface without Fresnel structures). Portion 376-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface). Portion 378-2 is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., a surface profile that includes Fresnel structures, such as Fresnel structures arranged on a concave surface). In some embodiments, second lens surface 378 (including both portions 378-1 and 378-2) is described by a high-order polynomial such that second lens surface 378 includes a convex surface in portion 378-1 and transitions, after an inflection point, to a concave surface in portion 378-2. For example, second lens surface 378 is defined by a fourth-order polynomial, such as z.sub.1(r)=a.sub.1+b.sub.1.times.r.sup.2+c.sub.1.times.r.sup.4, where r is a radial position from a center of the lens, z.sub.1 is a height of second lens surface 378 at the radial position r, and a.sub.1, b.sub.1, and c.sub.1 are coefficients. In some cases, second lens surface 378 is defined by a higher order polynomial (e.g., a sixth-order polynomial, an eight-order polynomial, a tenth-order polynomial, etc.) In some embodiments, Fresnel facets are gradually tapered into portion 378-2 near this inflection point. In some embodiments, first lens surface 376 (including both portions 376-1 and 376-2) is described by a high-order polynomial such that first lens surface 376 includes a convex surface in portion 376-1, and transitions to a less-steep surface near a junction between portion 376-1 and 376-2 (e.g., the slope decreases near the junction between portion 376-1 and 376-2) and to another convex surface in portion 376-2. For example, first lens surface 376 is defined by a sixth-order polynomial, such as z.sub.2(r)=a.sub.2+b.sub.2.times.r.sup.2+c.times.r.sup.4+d.times.r.sup.6, where z.sub.2 is a height of first lens surface 376 at the radial position r, and a.sub.2, b.sub.2, c.sub.2, and d are coefficients. In some cases, first lens surface 376 is defined by a higher order polynomial (e.g., an eight-order polynomial, a tenth-order polynomial, a twelfth-order polynomial, etc.).

In lens 370, first lens surface 376 transitions continuously from portion 376-1 to portion 376-2. For example, in some embodiments, a slope of portion 376-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2 is the same as a slope of portion 376-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2. In some embodiments, a derivative of the slope of portion 376-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2 is the same as a derivative of the slope of portion 376-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2. In some embodiments, a second derivative of the slope of portion 376-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2 is the same as a second derivative of the slope of portion 376-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 376-1 and portion 376-2. This transition reduces optical artifacts and reduces the visibility of the transition.

In some embodiments, second lens surface 378 transitions continuously from portion 378-1 to portion 378-2. For example, in some embodiments, a slope of portion 378-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2 is the same as a slope of portion 378-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2. In some embodiments, a derivative of the slope of portion 378-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2 is the same as a derivative of the slope of portion 378-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2. In some embodiments, a second derivative of the slope of portion 378-1 adjacent to a junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2 is the same as a second derivative of the slope of portion 378-2 adjacent to the junction between portion 378-1 and portion 378-2. This transition further reduces optical artifacts and reduces the visibility of the transition.

In some embodiments, when lens 370 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 370 is positioned so that first lens surface 376 faces light emission device array 310 (and second lens surface 378 faces an eye of a user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device). In some other embodiments, when lens 370 is used in a display device (e.g., display device 300), lens 370 is positioned so that second lens surface 378 faces light emission device array 310 (and first lens surface 376 faces the eye of the user when the eye of the user is placed adjacent to the display device).

In some embodiments, lens 370 in FIG. 3H provides a temporal field of view of 70.degree., 71.degree., 72.degree., 73.degree., 74.degree., 75.degree., 76.degree., 77.degree., 78.degree., 79.degree., 80.degree., 90.degree., or 100.degree. (e.g., for an eye relief of 20 mm).

FIG. 3I is a cross-sectional view of lens 380 in accordance with some embodiments. Lens 380 is a combination of two component lenses, each component lens corresponding to a portion of lens 370 shown in FIG. 3H. In some embodiments, a first component lens is used for projecting an image toward one eye (e.g., a left eye) and a second component lens is used for projecting an image toward the other eye (e.g., a right eye). In some embodiments, the two component lenses are fused together, as shown in FIG. 3I. In some embodiments, the two component lenses are separate from each other (e.g., the first component lens is separate from the second component lens).

FIG. 3J is a cross-sectional view of lens 390 in accordance with some embodiments.

Lens 390 is defined by a first lens surface (e.g., surface 396) and a second lens surface (e.g., surface 398) opposite to the first lens surface. The lens includes a first portion (e.g., a combination of 392-1 and 394-1) and a second portion (e.g., a combination of 392-2 and 394-2) that is distinct from the first portion and is coupled with the first portion. The first portion of the lens (e.g., the combination of 392-1 and 394-1) includes a first sub-portion (e.g., 392-1) of the first portion of the lens and a second sub-portion (e.g., 394-1), of the first portion of the lens, located around the first sub-portion of the first portion of the lens. The first sub-portion (e.g., 392-1) of the first portion of the lens includes a first surface portion (e.g., surface portion 396-1) of the first lens surface. The second sub-portion (e.g., 394-1) of the first portion of the lens is defined by a second surface portion (e.g., surface portion 396-2) of the first lens surface and a third surface (e.g., surface 395) that is opposite to the second surface portion of the first lens surface. The second portion of the lens (e.g., the combination of 392-2 and 394-2) includes a first sub-portion (e.g., 392-2) of the second portion of the lens and a second sub-portion (e.g., 394-2), of the second portion of the lens, located around the first sub-portion of the second portion of the lens. The first sub-portion (e.g., 392-2) of the second portion of the lens includes a first surface portion (e.g., surface portion 398-1) of the second lens surface. The second sub-portion (e.g., 394-2) of the second portion of the lens is defined by a second surface portion (e.g., surface portion 398-2) of the second lens surface and a fourth surface (e.g., surface 397) that is opposite to the second surface portion of the second lens surface. The second sub-portion (e.g., 394-1) of the first portion of the lens is separate from the second sub-portion (e.g., 394-2) of the second portion of the lens. The third surface is distinct from the fourth surface. The first lens surface (e.g., surface 396) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile over the first surface portion and the second surface portion of the first lens surface (e.g., Fresnel structures are arranged on a flat surface over the first surface portion and the second surface portion of the first lens surface). The second lens surface (e.g., surface 398) is defined by a smooth surface profile over the first surface portion and the second surface portion of the second lens surface (e.g., a concave lens surface). In some embodiments, the third lens surface (e.g., surface 395) is defined by a smooth lens surface (e.g., a convex lens surface). In some embodiments, the fourth lens surface (e.g., surface 397) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile (e.g., Fresnel structures arranged on a convex surface).

In some embodiments, lens 390 in FIG. 3J provides a temporal field of view of 70.degree., 71.degree., 72.degree., 73.degree., 74.degree., 75.degree., 76.degree., 77.degree., 78.degree., 79.degree., 80.degree., 90.degree., or 100.degree. (e.g., for an eye relief of 20 mm).

FIG. 4A illustrates an exemplary surface profile in accordance with some embodiments.

In FIG. 4A, the smooth lens surface transitions into the Fresnel lens surface in a way so that the smooth lens surface and the Fresnel lens surface are continuous and their slopes also match at a junction of the smooth lens surface and the Fresnel lens surface. It has been found that when the slope of the smooth lens surface and the slope of the Fresnel lens surface match at the junction, the transition becomes optically seamless. This reduces or eliminates artifacts at the transition. Those skilled in the art will recognize that maintaining higher-order continuities (e.g. continuities in 2.sup.nd and/or 3.sup.rd derivatives) further reduces artifacts (e.g. ripples in the distortion) at the transition. Thus, in some embodiments, a second derivative of the smooth lens surface and a second derivative of the Fresnel lens surface match at the junction. In some embodiments, a third derivative of the smooth lens surface and a third derivative of the Fresnel lens surface match at the junction.

FIGS. 4B-4D illustrate exemplary surface profiles in accordance with some embodiments. In FIGS. 4B-4D, the smooth lens surface transitions into the Fresnel lens surface in a way so that the smooth lens surface and the Fresnel lens surface are continuous but their slopes do not match at the junction of the smooth lens surface and the Fresnel lens surface. In these lenses, the abrupt change in the slope causes an imaging artifact. Ray bundles that straddle this discontinuity split to different portions of the display, which increases the visibility of the transition.

In light of these principles, we now turn to certain embodiments.

In accordance with some embodiments, a lens is defined by a first lens surface (e.g., 376 in FIG. 3H) and a second lens surface (e.g., 378 in FIG. 3H) opposite to the first lens surface. The lens includes a first portion (e.g., 372 in FIG. 3H); and a second portion (e.g., 374 in FIG. 3H) that is distinct from the first portion and is located around the first portion. The first lens surface for the first portion of the lens (e.g., 376-1) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the first portion of the lens (e.g., 378-1) is defined by a smooth surface profile function. The first lens surface for a second portion of the lens (e.g., 376-2) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile. The second lens surface for the second portion of the lens (e.g., 378-2) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile.

In some embodiments, the second portion (e.g., 374 in FIG. 3H) includes an annular region, around the first portion, of the lens.

In some embodiments, the lens is configured to focus light impinging on the first lens surface (e.g., the lens is a converging lens).

In some embodiments, the first lens surface for the second portion of the lens extends from the first lens surface for the first portion of the lens, and the second lens surface for the second portion of the lens extends from the second lens surface for the first portion of the lens. For example, in FIG. 3H, portion 376-2 of first lens surface 376 extends from portion 376-1 of first lens surface 376 and portion 378-2 of second lens surface 378 extends from portion 378-1 of second lens surface 378.

In some embodiments, the second portion of the lens corresponds to one or more portions of a convex-concave lens. For example, in FIG. 3H, second portion 374 is defined by convex surface 376-2 and concave surface 378-2.

In some embodiments, the first portion of the lens corresponds to one or more portions of a plano-convex lens. For example, in FIG. 3F, first portion 362 is defined by convex surface 366-1 and flat surface 368-1. In another example, in FIG. 3D, first portion 342 is defined by flat surface 346-1 and convex surface 348-1.

In some embodiments, the second portion of the lens corresponds to one or more portions of a convex-concave lens. A convex surface of the second portion of the lens extends from a planar surface of the first portion of the lens. For example, in FIG. 3D, second portion 344 is defined by concave surface 348-2 and convex surface 346-2 that extends from flat surface 346-1.

In some embodiments, the second portion of the lens corresponds to one or more portions of a convex-concave lens. A concave surface of the second portion of the lens extends from a planar surface of the first portion of the lens. For example, in FIG. 3F, second portion 364 is defined by convex surface 366-2 and concave surface 368-2 that extends from flat surface 368-1.

In some embodiments, the first portion of the lens corresponds to one or more portions of a convex-convex lens. For example, in FIG. 3E, first portion 352 is defined by convex surface 356-1 and convex surface 358-1.

In some embodiments, the second lens surface is defined by a polynomial that includes a convex surface for the first portion of the lens and a concave surface for the second portion of the lens (e.g., second lens surface 378, in FIG. 3H, that includes a convex surface in first portion 378-1 and a concave surface in second portion 378-2). In some embodiments, the first lens surface is defined by a polynomial that includes a convex surface for the first portion of the lens and a convex surface for the second portion of the lens (e.g., first lens surface 376-1, in FIG. 3H, that includes a convex surface in first portion 376-1 and a convex surface in second portion 376-2).

In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 30% of a width of the lens. For example, in FIG. 3G, the width of first portion 362 is at least 30% of the width of lens 360. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 20% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 40% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 50% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 60% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is at least 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 60% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 50% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 40% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is less than 30% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 40% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 50% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 60% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 30% and 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 40% and 50% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 40% and 60% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 40% and 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 40% and 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 40% and 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 50% and 60% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 50% and 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 50% and 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 50% and 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 60% and 70% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 60% and 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 60% and 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 70% and 80% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 70% and 90% of a width of the lens. In some embodiments, a width of the first portion is between 80% and 90% of a width of the lens.

In some embodiments, the second lens surface has a first slope adjacent to a junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens. The second lens surface has a second slope adjacent to the junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens. The first slope is substantially the same as the second slope (e.g., second surface 378 of lens 370 shown in FIG. 370 transitions as shown in FIG. 4A).

In some embodiments, the second lens surface for the first portion of the lens is defined by a smooth surface profile function. The second lens surface for the second portion of the lens is defined by a Fresnel surface profile function. A derivative of the smooth surface profile function defining the second lens surface for the first portion of the lens adjacent to a junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens is substantially the same as a derivative of the Fresnel surface profile function defining the second lens surface for the second portion of the lens adjacent to the junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens.

In some embodiments, a second derivative of the smooth surface profile function defining the second lens surface for the first portion of the lens adjacent to the junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens is substantially the same as a second derivative of the Fresnel surface profile function defining the second lens surface for the second portion of the lens adjacent to the junction between the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens.

In some embodiments, the first lens surface is defined by a single Fresnel surface profile function for both the first portion and the second portion of the lens.

In some embodiments, the first portion and the second portion of the first lens surface are rotationally symmetric (e.g., lens 340 in FIG. 3B).

In some embodiments, the first portion and the second portion of the first lens surface are reflectionally symmetric without being rotationally symmetric. For example, the lens is configured to focus light along a line. In some cases, the lens is a cylindrical lens.

In accordance with some embodiments, a display device (e.g., display device 300 in FIG. 3A) includes the lens discussed above (e.g., lens 320 in FIG. 3A). The display device also includes an array of light emitting devices (e.g., an array of light emitting devices 310 in FIG. 3A) coupled with the lens for outputting light through the lens.

In some embodiments, the display device is a head-mounted display device (e.g., display device 100 in FIG. 1).

In some embodiments, the array of light emitting devices is configured to output light and transmit the light through the lens toward an eye of a user (e.g., eye 330 in FIG. 3A) when the display device is worn on a head of the user.

In accordance with some embodiments, a lens (e.g., lens 390 in FIG. 3J) is defined by a first lens surface (e.g., surface 396 in FIG. 3J) and a second lens surface (e.g., surface 398 in FIG. 3J) opposite to the first lens surface. The lens includes a first portion (e.g., a combination of 392-1 and 394-1) and a second portion (e.g., a combination of 392-2 and 394-2) that is distinct from the first portion and is coupled with the first portion. The first portion of the lens includes a first sub-portion (e.g., 392-1 in FIG. 3J) of the first portion of the lens and a second sub-portion (e.g., 394-1 in FIG. 3J), of the first portion of the lens, located around the first sub-portion of the first portion of the lens. The first sub-portion (e.g., 392-1 in FIG. 3J) of the first portion of the lens includes a first surface portion (e.g., surface portion 396-1 in FIG. 3J) of the first lens surface. The second sub-portion (e.g., 394-1 in FIG. 3J) of the first portion of the lens is defined by a second surface portion (e.g., surface portion 396-2 in FIG. 3J) of the first lens surface and a third surface (e.g., surface 395 in FIG. 3J) that is opposite to the second surface portion of the first lens surface. The second portion of the lens includes a first sub-portion (e.g., 392-2 in FIG. 3J) of the second portion of the lens and a second sub-portion (e.g., 394-2 in FIG. 3J), of the second portion of the lens, located around the first sub-portion of the second portion of the lens. The first sub-portion (e.g., 392-2 in FIG. 3J) of the second portion of the lens includes a first surface portion (e.g., surface portion 398-1 in FIG. 3J) of the second lens surface. The second sub-portion (e.g., 394-2 in FIG. 3J) of the second portion of the lens is defined by a second surface portion (e.g., surface portion 398-2 in FIG. 3J) of the second lens surface and a fourth surface (e.g., surface 397 in FIG. 3J) that is opposite to the second surface portion of the second lens surface. The first lens surface (e.g., surface 396 in FIG. 3J) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile over the first surface portion and the second surface portion of the first lens surface. The second lens surface (e.g., surface 398 in FIG. 3J) is defined by a smooth surface profile over the first surface portion and the second surface portion of the second lens surface. In some embodiments, the third lens surface (e.g., surface 395 in FIG. 3J) is defined by a smooth lens surface. In some embodiments, the fourth lens surface (e.g., surface 397 in FIG. 3J) is defined by a Fresnel surface profile.

In accordance with some embodiments, a method for making a lens includes obtaining the first portion of the lens (e.g., a combination of 392-1 and 394-1 in FIG. 3J), obtaining the second portion of the lens (e.g., a combination of 392-2 and 394-2 in FIG. 3J), and coupling (e.g., by gluing, fusing, attaching, holding together, etc.) the first portion of the lens and the second portion of the lens together (e.g., at least sub-portion 392-1 and sub-portion 392-2).

Although some of various drawings illustrate a number of logical stages in a particular order, stages which are not order dependent may be reordered and other stages may be combined or broken out. While some reordering or other groupings are specifically mentioned, others will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art, so the ordering and groupings presented herein are not an exhaustive list of alternatives. Moreover, it should be recognized that the stages could be implemented in hardware, firmware, software or any combination thereof.

The foregoing description, for purpose of explanation, has been described with reference to specific embodiments. However, the illustrative discussions above are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the scope of the claims to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in view of the above teachings. The embodiments were chosen in order to best explain the principles underlying the claims and their practical applications, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best use the embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular uses contemplated.

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