Apple Patent | Systems, Methods, and Graphical User Interfaces for Interacting with Augmented and Virtual Reality Environments

Patent: Systems, Methods, and Graphical User Interfaces for Interacting with Augmented and Virtual Reality Environments

Publication Number: 20190065027

Publication Date: 20190228

Applicants: Apple

Abstract

A computer system concurrently displays, in an augmented reality environment, a representation of at least a portion of a field of view of one or more cameras that includes a respective physical object, which is updated as contents of the field of view change; and a respective virtual user interface object, at a respective location in the virtual user interface determined based on the location of the respective physical object in the field of view. While detecting an input at a location that corresponds to the displayed respective virtual user interface object, in response to detecting movement of the input relative to the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras, the system adjusts an appearance of the respective virtual user interface object in accordance with a magnitude of movement of the input relative to the respective physical object.

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RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/553,063, filed Aug. 31, 2017, and Provisional Patent Application No. 62/564,984, filed Sep. 28, 2017, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This relates generally to computer systems for virtual/augmented reality, including but not limited to electronic devices for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments.

BACKGROUND

[0003] The development of computer systems for virtual/augmented reality has increased significantly in recent years. Example virtual/augmented reality environments include at least some virtual elements that replace or augment the physical world. Input devices, such as touch-sensitive surfaces, for computer systems and other electronic computing devices are used to interact with virtual/augmented reality environments. Example touch-sensitive surfaces include touchpads, touch-sensitive remote controls, and touch-screen displays. Such surfaces are used to manipulate user interfaces and objects therein on a display. Example user interface objects include digital images, video, text, icons, and control elements such as buttons and other graphics.

[0004] But methods and interfaces for interacting with environments that include at least some virtual elements (e.g., augmented reality environments, mixed reality environments, and virtual reality environments) are cumbersome, inefficient, and limited. For example, using a sequence of inputs to select one or more user interface objects (e.g., one or more virtual elements in the virtual/augmented reality environment) and perform one or more actions on the selected user interface objects is tedious, creates a significant cognitive burden on a user, and detracts from the experience with the virtual/augmented reality environment. In addition, these methods take longer than necessary, thereby wasting energy. This latter consideration is particularly important in battery-operated devices.

SUMMARY

[0005] Accordingly, there is a need for computer systems with improved methods and interfaces for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments. Such methods and interfaces optionally complement or replace conventional methods for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments. Such methods and interfaces reduce the number, extent, and/or nature of the inputs from a user and produce a more efficient human-machine interface. For battery-operated devices, such methods and interfaces conserve power and increase the time between battery charges.

[0006] The above deficiencies and other problems associated with user interfaces for virtual/augmented reality are reduced or eliminated by the disclosed computer systems. In some embodiments, the computer system includes a desktop computer. In some embodiments, the computer system is portable (e.g., a notebook computer, tablet computer, or handheld device). In some embodiments, the computer system includes a personal electronic device (e.g., a wearable electronic device, such as a watch). In some embodiments, the computer system has (and/or is in communication with) a touchpad. In some embodiments, the computer system has (and/or is in communication with) a touch-sensitive display (also known as a “touch screen” or “touch-screen display”). In some embodiments, the computer system has a graphical user interface (GUI), one or more processors, memory and one or more modules, programs or sets of instructions stored in the memory for performing multiple functions. In some embodiments, the user interacts with the GUI in part through stylus and/or finger contacts and gestures on the touch-sensitive surface. In some embodiments, the functions optionally include game playing, image editing, drawing, presenting, word processing, spreadsheet making, telephoning, video conferencing, e-mailing, instant messaging, workout support, digital photographing, digital videoing, web browsing, digital music playing, note taking, and/or digital video playing. Executable instructions for performing these functions are, optionally, included in a non-transitory computer readable storage medium or other computer program product configured for execution by one or more processors.

[0007] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system having a display generation component, one or more cameras, and an input device. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, an augmented reality environment. Displaying the augmented reality environment includes concurrently displaying: a representation of at least a portion of a field of view of the one or more cameras that includes a respective physical object, wherein the representation is updated as contents of the field of view of the one or more cameras change; and a respective virtual user interface object at a respective location in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras, wherein the respective virtual user interface object has a location that is determined based on the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras. The method also includes, while displaying the augmented reality environment, detecting an input at a location that corresponds to the respective virtual user interface object. The method further includes, while continuing to detect the input: detecting movement of the input relative to the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras; and, in response to detecting the movement of the input relative to the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras, adjusting an appearance of the respective virtual user interface object in accordance with a magnitude of movement of the input relative to the respective physical object.

[0008] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system having a display generation component, one or more cameras, and an input device. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, an augmented reality environment. Displaying the augmented reality environment includes concurrently displaying: a representation of at least a portion of a field of view of the one or more cameras that includes a respective physical object, wherein the representation is updated as contents of the field of view of the one or more cameras change; and a respective virtual user interface object at a respective location in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras, wherein the respective virtual user interface object has a location that is determined based on the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras. The method also includes, while displaying the augmented reality environment, detecting an input that changes a virtual environment setting for the augmented reality environment. The method further includes, in response to detecting the input that changes the virtual environment setting: adjusting an appearance of the respective virtual user interface object in accordance with the change made to the virtual environment setting for the augmented reality environment; and applying a filter to at least a portion of the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras, wherein the filter is selected based on the change made to the virtual environment setting.

[0009] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system having a display generation component, one or more cameras, and an input device. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, an augmented reality environment. Displaying the augmented reality environment includes concurrently displaying: a representation of at least a portion of a field of view of the one or more cameras that includes a respective physical object, wherein the representation is updated as contents of the field of view of the one or more cameras change; and a first virtual user interface object in a virtual model that is displayed at a respective location in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras, wherein the first virtual user interface object has a location that is determined based on the respective physical object in the field of view of the one or more cameras. The method also includes, while displaying the augmented reality environment, detecting a first input that corresponds to selection of the first virtual user interface object; and, in response to detecting the first input that corresponds to selection of the first virtual user interface object, displaying a simulated field of view of the virtual model from a perspective of the first virtual user interface object in the virtual model.

[0010] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system with a display generation component and an input device. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, a first virtual user interface object in a virtual three-dimensional space. The method also includes, while displaying the first virtual user interface object in the virtual three-dimensional space, detecting, via the input device, a first input that includes selection of a respective portion of the first virtual user interface object and movement of the first input in two dimensions. The method further includes, in response to detecting the first input that includes movement of the first input in two dimensions: in accordance with a determination that the respective portion of the first virtual user interface object is a first portion of the first virtual user interface object, adjusting an appearance of the first virtual user interface object in a first direction determined based on the movement of the first input in two dimensions and the first portion of the first virtual user interface object that was selected, wherein the adjustment of the first virtual user interface object in the first direction is constrained to movement in a first set of two dimensions of the virtual three-dimensional space; and, in accordance with a determination that the respective portion of the first virtual user interface object is a second portion of the first virtual user interface object that is distinct from the first portion of the first virtual user interface object, adjusting the appearance of the first virtual user interface object in a second direction that is different from the first direction, wherein the second direction is determined based on the movement of the first input in two dimensions and the second portion of the first virtual user interface object that was selected, wherein the adjustment of the first virtual user interface object in the second direction is constrained to movement in a second set of two dimensions of the virtual three-dimensional space that is different from the first set of two dimensions of the virtual three-dimensional space.

[0011] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system with a display generation component, one or more attitude sensors, and an input device. The method includes displaying in a first viewing mode, via the display generation component, a simulated environment that is oriented relative to a physical environment of the computer system, wherein displaying the simulated environment in the first viewing mode includes displaying a first virtual user interface object in a virtual model that is displayed at a first respective location in the simulated environment that is associated with the physical environment of the computer system. The method also includes, while displaying the simulated environment, detecting, via the one or more attitude sensors, a first change in attitude of at least a portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment; and in response to detecting the first change in the attitude of the portion of the computer system, changing an appearance of the first virtual user interface object in the virtual model so as to maintain a fixed spatial relationship between the first virtual user interface object and the physical environment. The method further includes, after changing the appearance of the first virtual user interface object based on the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system, detecting, via the input device, a first gesture that corresponds to an interaction with the simulated environment; and in response to detecting the first gesture that corresponds to the interaction with the simulated environment, performing an operation in the simulated environment that corresponds to the first gesture. In addition, the method includes, after performing the operation that corresponds to the first gesture, detecting, via the one or more attitude sensors, a second change in attitude of the portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment; and in response to detecting the second change in the attitude of the portion of the computer system: in accordance with a determination that the first gesture met mode change criteria, wherein the mode change criteria include a requirement that the first gesture corresponds to an input that changes a spatial parameter of the simulated environment relative to the physical environment, transitioning from displaying the simulated environment, including the virtual model, in the first viewing mode to displaying the simulated environment, including the virtual model, in a second viewing mode, wherein displaying the virtual model in the simulated environment in the second viewing mode includes forgoing changing the appearance of the first virtual user interface object to maintain the fixed spatial relationship between the first virtual user interface object and the physical environment; and in accordance with a determination that the first gesture did not meet the mode change criteria, continuing to display the first virtual model in the simulated environment in the first viewing mode, wherein displaying the virtual model in the first viewing mode includes changing an appearance of the first virtual user interface object in the virtual model in response to the second change in attitude of the portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment, so as to maintain the fixed spatial relationship between the first virtual user interface object and the physical environment.

[0012] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a first computer system with a first display generation component, one or more first attitude sensors, and a first input device. The method includes displaying, via the first display generation component of the first computer system, a simulated environment that is oriented relative to a first physical environment of the first computer system, wherein displaying the simulated environment includes concurrently displaying: a first virtual user interface object in a virtual model that is displayed at a respective location in the simulated environment that is associated with the first physical environment of the first computer system; and a visual indication of a viewing perspective of a second computer system of the simulated environment, wherein the second computer system is a computer system having a second display generation component, one or more second attitude sensors, and a second input device, that is displaying, via the second display generation component of the second computer system, a view of the simulated environment that is oriented relative to a second physical environment of the second computer system. The method also includes, while displaying the simulated environment via the first display generation component of the first computer system, detecting a change in the viewing perspective of the second computer system of the simulated environment based on a change in the attitude of a portion of the second computer system relative to the second physical environment of the second computer system. The method further includes, in response to detecting the change in the viewing perspective of the second computer system of the simulated environment based on the change in the attitude of the portion of the second computer system relative to the physical environment of the second computer system, updating the visual indication of the viewing perspective of the second computer system of the simulated environment displayed via the first display generation component of the first computer system in accordance with the change in the viewing perspective of the second computer system of the simulated environment.

[0013] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system with a display generation component, one or more attitude sensors, and an input device. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, a simulated environment. The method also includes, while displaying the simulated environment, detecting, via the input device, a first input that is directed to a respective location in the simulated environment. The method also includes, in response to detecting the first input that is directed to the respective location in the simulated environment: in accordance with a determination that the first input was of a first input type and that the first input was detected at a first location in the simulated environment other than a current location of an insertion cursor in the simulated environment, displaying the insertion cursor at the first location; and, in accordance with a determination that the first input was of the first input type and that the first input was detected at a second location in the simulated environment that corresponds to the current location of the insertion cursor, inserting a first object at the second location and moving the insertion cursor to a third location that is on the first object.

[0014] In accordance with some embodiments, a method is performed at a computer system with a display generation component, one or more cameras, and one or more attitude sensors. The method includes displaying, via the display generation component, an augmented reality environment, wherein displaying the augmented reality environment includes concurrently displaying: a representation of at least a portion of a field of view of the one or more cameras that includes a physical object and that is updated as contents of the field of view of the one or more cameras change; and a virtual user interface object at a respective location in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras, wherein the respective location of the virtual user interface object in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras is determined based on a fixed spatial relationship between the virtual user interface object and the physical object included in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras. The method also includes, while displaying the augmented reality environment, detecting, via the one or more attitude sensors, a first change in attitude of at least a portion of the computer system relative to a physical environment of the computer system. The method also includes, in response to detecting the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment of the computer system, updating the augmented reality environment in accordance with the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system, where: in accordance with a determination that the augmented reality environment is displayed in a non-stabilized mode of operation, updating the augmented reality environment in accordance with the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system includes: updating the representation of the portion of the field of view of the one or more cameras by a first amount of adjustment that is based on the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment of the computer system; and updating the respective location of the virtual user interface object to a location that is selected so as to maintain the fixed spatial between the virtual user interface object and the physical object included in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras; and, in accordance with a determination that the augmented reality environment is displayed in a stabilized mode of operation, updating the augmented reality environment in accordance with the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system includes: updating the representation of the portion of the field of view of the one or more cameras by a second amount of adjustment that is based on the first change in attitude of the portion of the computer system relative to the physical environment of the computer system and that is less than the first amount of adjustment; and updating the respective location of the virtual user interface object to a location that is selected so as to maintain the fixed spatial relationship between the virtual user interface object and the physical object included in the representation of the field of view of the one or more cameras.

[0015] In accordance with some embodiments, a computer system includes (and/or is in communication with) a display generation component (e.g., a display, a projector, a heads-up display, or the like), one or more cameras (e.g., video cameras that continuously provide a live preview of at least a portion of the contents that are within the field of view of the cameras and optionally generate video outputs including one or more streams of image frames capturing the contents within the field of view of the cameras), and one or more input devices (e.g., a touch-sensitive surface, such as a touch-sensitive remote control, or a touch-screen display that also serves as the display generation component, a mouse, a joystick, a wand controller, and/or cameras tracking the position of one or more features of the user such as the user’s hands), optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, optionally one or more tactile output generators, one or more processors, and memory storing one or more programs; the one or more programs are configured to be executed by the one or more processors and the one or more programs include instructions for performing or causing performance of the operations of any of the methods described herein. In accordance with some embodiments, a computer readable storage medium has stored therein instructions which, when executed by a computer system that includes (and/or is in communication with) a display generation component, one or more cameras, one or more input devices, optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, and optionally one or more tactile output generators, cause the computer system to perform or cause performance of the operations of any of the methods described herein. In accordance with some embodiments, a graphical user interface on a computer system that includes (and/or is in communication with) a display generation component, one or more cameras, one or more input devices, optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, optionally one or more tactile output generators, a memory, and one or more processors to execute one or more programs stored in the memory includes one or more of the elements displayed in any of the methods described herein, which are updated in response to inputs, as described in any of the methods described herein. In accordance with some embodiments, a computer system includes (and/or is in communication with) a display generation component, one or more cameras, one or more input devices, optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, optionally one or more tactile output generators, and means for performing or causing performance of the operations of any of the methods described herein. In accordance with some embodiments, an information processing apparatus, for use in a computer system that includes (and/or is in communication with) a display generation component, one or more cameras, one or more input devices, optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, and optionally one or more tactile output generators, includes means for performing or causing performance of the operations of any of the methods described herein.

[0016] Thus, computer systems that have (and/or are in communication with) a display generation component, one or more cameras, one or more input devices, optionally one or more attitude sensors, optionally one or more sensors to detect intensities of contacts with the touch-sensitive surface, and optionally one or more tactile output generators, are provided with improved methods and interfaces for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments, thereby increasing the effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction with such computer systems. Such methods and interfaces may complement or replace conventional methods for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0017] For a better understanding of the various described embodiments, reference should be made to the Description of Embodiments below, in conjunction with the following drawings in which like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the figures.

[0018] FIG. 1A is a block diagram illustrating a portable multifunction device with a touch-sensitive display in accordance with some embodiments.

[0019] FIG. 1B is a block diagram illustrating example components for event handling in accordance with some embodiments.

[0020] FIG. 2 illustrates a portable multifunction device having a touch screen in accordance with some embodiments.

[0021] FIG. 3A is a block diagram of an example multifunction device with a display and a touch-sensitive surface in accordance with some embodiments.

[0022] FIGS. 3B-3C are block diagrams of example computer systems in accordance with some embodiments.

[0023] FIG. 4A illustrates an example user interface for a menu of applications on a portable multifunction device in accordance with some embodiments.

[0024] FIG. 4B illustrates an example user interface for a multifunction device with a touch-sensitive surface that is separate from the display in accordance with some embodiments.

[0025] FIGS. 4C-4E illustrate examples of dynamic intensity thresholds in accordance with some embodiments.

[0026] FIGS. 5A1-5A40 illustrate example user interfaces for displaying an augmented reality environment and, in response to different inputs, adjusting the appearance of the augmented reality environment and/or the appearance of objects in the augmented reality environment, as well as transitioning between viewing a virtual model in the augmented reality environment and viewing simulated views of the virtual model from the perspectives of objects in the virtual model, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0027] FIGS. 5B 1-5B41 illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for three-dimensional manipulation of virtual user interface objects, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0028] FIGS. 5C1-5C30 illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for transitioning between viewing modes of a displayed simulated environment, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0029] FIGS. 5D1-5D14C illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for multiple users to interact with virtual user interface objects in a displayed simulated environment, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0030] FIGS. 5E1-5E32 illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for placement of an insertion cursor, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0031] FIGS. 5F1-5F17b illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for displaying an augmented reality environment in a stabilized mode of operation, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0032] FIGS. 6A-6D are flow diagrams of a process for adjusting an appearance of a virtual user interface object in an augmented reality environment, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0033] FIGS. 7A-7C are flow diagrams of a process for applying a filter on a live image captured by one or more cameras of a computer system in an augmented reality environment, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0034] FIGS. 8A-8C are flow diagrams of a process for transitioning between viewing a virtual model in the augmented reality environment and viewing simulated views of the virtual model from the perspectives of objects in the virtual model, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0035] FIGS. 9A-9E are flow diagrams of a process for three-dimensional manipulation of virtual user interface objects, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0036] FIGS. 10A-10E are flow diagrams of a process for transitioning between viewing modes of a displayed simulated environment, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0037] FIGS. 11A-11C are flow diagrams of a process for updating an indication of a viewing perspective of a second computer system in a simulated environment displayed by a first computer system, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0038] FIGS. 12A-12D are flow diagrams of a process for placement of an insertion cursor, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0039] FIGS. 13A-13E are flow diagrams of a process for displaying an augmented reality environment in a stabilized mode of operation, in accordance with some embodiments.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0040] An augmented reality environment is an environment in which reality is augmented with supplemental information that provides additional information to a user that is not available in the physical world. Conventional methods of interacting with augmented reality environments (e.g., to access the supplemental information) often require multiple separate inputs (e.g., a sequence of gestures and button presses, etc.) to achieve an intended outcome. Further, conventional methods of inputs are often limited in range (e.g., by the size of the touch-sensitive display of a computer system). The embodiments herein provide an intuitive way for a user to interact with an augmented reality environment (e.g., by adjusting an appearance of a virtual user interface object based on a combination of movement of the computer system and movement of a contact on an input device (e.g., a touch-screen display) of the computer system, and by applying a filter in real-time on a live image captured by one or more cameras of the computer system, where the filter is selected based on a virtual environment setting for the augmented reality environment).

[0041] Additionally, conventional interactions with virtual/augmented reality environments are generally limited to a single perspective (e.g., from the perspective of the user wearing/holding the device). The embodiments herein provide a more immersive and intuitive way to experience the virtual/augmented reality environment by presenting simulated views of a virtual model (e.g., of a physical object) in a virtual reality environment from the perspectives of virtual user interface objects (e.g., from the perspectives of a car or a person in the augmented reality environment).

[0042] The systems, methods, and GUIs described herein improve user interface interactions with virtual/augmented reality environments in multiple ways. For example, they make it easier to: display an augmented reality environment and, in response to different inputs, adjust the appearance of the augmented reality environment and/or of objects therein; transition between viewing a virtual model in the augmented reality environment and viewing simulated views of the virtual model from the perspectives of objects in the virtual model; and three-dimensional manipulation of virtual user interface objects.

[0043] Below, FIGS. 1A-1B, 2, and 3A-3C provide a description of example devices. FIGS. 4A-4B, 5A1-5A40, 5B1-5B41, 5C1-5C30, 5D1-5D14, 5E1-5E32, and 5F1-5F 17 illustrate examples of systems and user interfaces for multiple users to interact with virtual user interface objects in a displayed simulated environment, in accordance with some embodiments illustrate example user interfaces for interacting with augmented and virtual reality environments, including displaying an augmented reality environment and, in response to different inputs, adjusting the appearance of the augmented reality environment and/or the appearance of objects in the augmented reality environment, transitioning between viewing a virtual model in the augmented reality environment and viewing simulated views of the virtual model from the perspectives of objects in the virtual model, and three-dimensional manipulation of virtual user interface objects, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 6A-6D illustrate a flow diagram of a method of adjusting an appearance of a virtual user interface object in an augmented reality environment, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 7A-7C illustrate a flow diagram of a method of applying a filter on a live image captured by one or more cameras of a computer system in an augmented reality environment, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 8A-8C illustrate a flow diagram of a method of transitioning between viewing a virtual model in the augmented reality environment and viewing simulated views of the virtual model from the perspectives of objects in the virtual model, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 9A-9E illustrate a flow diagram of a method of three-dimensional manipulation of virtual user interface objects, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 10A-10E illustrate a flow diagram of a method of transitioning between viewing modes of a displayed simulated environment, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 11A-11C illustrate a flow diagram of a method of updating an indication of a viewing perspective of a second computer system in a simulated environment displayed by a first computer system, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 12A-12D illustrate a flow diagram of a method of placement of an insertion cursor, in accordance with some embodiments. FIGS. 13A-13E illustrate a flow diagram of a method of displaying an augmented reality environment in a stabilized mode of operation, in accordance with some embodiments.

[0044] The user interfaces in FIGS. 5A1-5A40, 5B1-5B41, 5C1-5C30, 5D1-5D14, 5E1-5E32, and 5F1-5F17 are used to illustrate the processes in FIGS. 6A-6D, 7A-7C, 8A-8C, 9A-9E, 10A-10E, 11A-11C, 12A-12D, and 13A-13E.

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